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Caffeine

Caffeine

Caffeine is the most common natural nootropic or cognitive stimulant that has been used for several centuries. Almost 80% of the world’s population consumes products that contain caffeine in order to stay alert and productive. Besides coffee, other foods that are high in caffeine content include chocolate, ice cream, frozen yogurt, breakfast cereals, pudding, cocoa, soft drinks, tea brews, and protein bars. Nowadays, caffeine is also available in the form of supplement pills.

Overall Health Benefits of Caffeine

  • Improves Cognitive Function [1-70]
  • Improves Mood [71-86]
  • Improves Exercise Performance [87-122]
  • Helps Lose Weight [123-130]
  • Lowers Risk of Diabetes [131-167]
  • Protects the Liver [168-183]
  • Fights Cancer [184-227]
  • Lowers Stroke Risk [228-336]
  • Maintains Healthy Heart [237-251]
  • Fights Hair Loss [252-262]
  • Improves Sexual Function [263-267]
  • Improves Kidney Health [268-278]

How Caffeine Works?

Once ingested, caffeine is quickly absorbed from the digestive tract into the bloodstream. Caffeine then binds to adenosine receptors, which in turn boost energy and mental processing. In addition, caffeine increases the production of neurotransmitters (brain chemicals) such as acetylcholine, dopamine, and norepinephrine, resulting in improved cognitive function.

Proven Health Benefits of Caffeine

Aside from being one of the world’s most popular beverages, caffeine boasts a wide array of health benefits that are backed by various high quality studies:

Improves Cognitive Function

Studies show that this cognitive enhancer has positive effects on various areas of cognitive function:

  1. Caffeine exhibited dose-dependent effects on alertness and visual attention in healthy participants. [1]
  2. In sleep-deprived participants, a total daily dose of 800 mg of caffeine improved reaction speed and accuracy in a series of tests assessing cognitive function. [2]
  3. In young adults who had sufficient sleep and another group who lacked sleep, 100 mg of caffeine improved both groups’ physical and cognitive performance during a driving task. [3]
  4. In non-caffeine consumers, caffeine administration enhanced memory consolidation. [4]
  5. Administration of caffeine in the morning helped with improving memory than in the afternoon. [5-6]
  6. In middle-aged males, administration of 100 mg caffeine improved working memory. [7]
  7. Women who consumed more than 261 mg per day of caffeine had a lower risk of developing dementia or memory impairment. [8]
  8. Multiple studies found that caffeine intake was associated with a significantly lower risk for Alzheimer’s disease. [9-26]
  9. Several studies also found that coffee drinkers have a lower risk of Parkinson’s disease. [27-37]
  10. One study found that men in the highest quartile of caffeine intake were less likely to develop dementia and associated neurological conditions than men in the lowest quartile. [38]
  11. In elderly men, long-term consumption of coffee significantly reduced cognitive decline. [39]
  12. In older women with vascular disorders, caffeine intake was related to moderately better cognitive maintenance over 5 years. [40]
  13. In older subjects, caffeine consumption improved cognitive performance in a dose-dependent manner. [41]
  14. In healthy adults, coffee consumption was associated with higher cognitive scores. [42]
  15. In women aged 80 or more years, lifetime coffee consumption was associated with better cognitive performance. [43]
  16. In elderly subjects, tea consumption decreased risk of cognitive impairment and cognitive decline. [44]
  17. In adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), tea consumption improved alertness, vigilance, efficiency, concentration, and cognitive performance. [45-46]
  18. In Japanese subjects, higher consumption of green tea significantly reduced the prevalence of cognitive impairment. [47]
  19. In elderly individuals, green tea consumption was significantly associated with a lower risk of functional disability related to cognitive impairment. [48-56]
  20. In people aged 60 years and above, green tea consumption was significantly associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline. [57]
  21. In the elderly population, green tea consumption for 12 months significantly reduced prevalence of cognitive impairment by preventing an increase in oxidative stress. [58]
  22. In women aged 70-74 years, intake of caffeine-rich foods was associated with better performance in several cognitive abilities. [59]
  23. In older individuals aged 65-84 years, moderate coffee consumption was associated with a reduced rate of mild cognitive impairment. [60]
  24. One study found that a daily consumption level of 1-2 cups of coffee was associated with lower risk of cognitive impairment. [61]
  25. In a study involving 13,137 subjects who consumed coffee for more than 5 years, a lower risk of incident dementia was observed. [62]
  26. In a study involving 415,530 participants, researchers found that habitual coffee intake significantly improved reaction time, pairs matching, reasoning, and prospective memory. [63]
  27. In a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease, caffeine administration at a daily dose of 500 mg reversed memory impairment by decreasing brain amyloid-beta levels. 64-69]
  28. In aged rats, coffee supplementation improved reference memory performance in the Morris water maze. [70]

Improves Mood

There’s a good deal of evidence supporting the mood-elevating properties of caffeine:

  1. In older adults, tea consumption was associated with reduced clinical depressive symptoms. [71]
  2. In individuals aged 60 years and above, long-term tea consumption was associated with reduced depressive and anxiety symptoms. [72]
  3. In healthy male subjects, caffeine supplementation as little as 32 mg significantly improved auditory vigilance and visual reaction time. [73]
  4. In the community-dwelling older population, a more frequent consumption of green tea was associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms. 74-75]
  5. In people aged 40 years and above, higher green tea consumption was associated with lower psychological distress. [76]
  6. Consumption of caffeine capsules significantly increased feelings of arousal and positive mood in nondependent individuals. [77]
  7. In regular caffeine consumers, caffeine administration at 2 mg/kg improved mood and performance on a number of cognitive measures. [78]
  8. In moderate to high caffeine consumers, a mean daily intake of 370 mg/day improved mood after 8 hours. [79]
  9. In healthy males and females, consumption of caffeine 3 times daily for 6 days was associated with increased alertness and lesser fatigue. [80]
  10. In sleep-deprived volunteers who were subjected to continuous exposure to stressors, caffeine administration (200 and 300 mg) significantly improved vigilance, reaction time, alertness, and mood state. [81]
  11. In adults with moderate to high caffeine intake, consumption of a single serving of popular caffeine-containing drinks improved mood after overnight caffeine abstinence. [82]
  12. In regular caffeine consumers, caffeine administration at 1.5 mg/kg led to a more positive mood and improved performance on a number of tasks. [83]
  13. In non-consumers, consumption of a drink containing 2 mg/kg caffeine significantly improved mood and cognitive performance. [84]
  14. In a study involving 50,739 U.S. women free of depressive symptoms, depression risk decreased with increasing caffeinated coffee consumption. [85]
  15. A study of 208,424 individuals found that coffee consumption of 4 or more cups per day was associated with a 53% reduction in suicide associated with depression. [86]

Improves Exercise Performance

This central nervous system stimulant does not only boost mental function but it also enhances physical performance. Studies show that caffeine can benefit both athletes and physically active individuals:

  1. In competitive and recreational athletes who perform resistance training, administration of caffeine-containing supplement increased upper-body strength. [87]
  2. One study found that a 5 mg/kg dose of caffeine significantly improved duration and magnitude of exercise in the nonusers compared with the users. [88]
  3. Caffeine ingestion significantly increased exercise time to exhaustion in the morning and this effect was sustained for 5 hours. [89]
  4. In male distance runners, supplementation with caffeine capsule resulted in a mean improvement of 23.8 seconds in 8 km performance time. [90]
  5. An analysis of multiple studies found that caffeine consumption was associated with greater time to exhaustion. [91]
  6. An analysis of 21 studies found that caffeine was associated with improved exercise performance and reduced ratings of perceived exertion. [92]
  7. In sleep deprived individuals, administration of 400-mg dose of caffeine followed by subsequent 100-mg doses increased time to exhaustion and reduced rating of perceived exertion. [93]
  8. In healthy citizens aged 70 years and above, caffeine increased cycling endurance by 25% and isometric arm flexion endurance by 54%, and reduced the rating of perceived exertion after 5 min of cycling by 11%. [94]
  9. In competitive male rugby players, caffeine supplementation at a dose of 6mg/kg improved sprint speeds, drive power, and passing accuracy. [95]
  10. In sleep deprived military subjects, caffeine supplementation improved measures of shooting performance such as target detection and engagement speed. [96]
  11. In cyclists, caffeine ingestion resulted in improved performance time and increased power. 97-99]
  12. In runners, caffeine supplementation improved speed and VO2 (oxygen consumption rate) during high-intensity run. [100-103]
  13. A study found that low doses of caffeine improved exercise performance by enhancing fat oxidation. [104-105]
  14. Caffeine administration resulted in an increased performance capacity among cross-country skiers at low altitudes. [106]
  15. In swimmers, caffeine administration resulted in a significantly lower perceived exertion and faster performance. [107-108]
  16. In rowers, caffeine administration at a dose of 6 or 9 mg produced a worthwhile enhancement of short-term endurance performance. [109]
  17. In volunteers who were subjected to perform pedaling exercises, administration of 250 mg of caffeine increased maximal anaerobic power. [110]
  18. A study found that caffeine consumption above 300 mg increased resting heart rate, expired ventilation volume, and VO2. [111]
  19. In exercise-trained subjects, ingestion of 4 mg/kg caffeine significantly increased resting metabolic rate (RMR). [112]
  20. In a group of spinal cord-injured subjects, caffeine ingestion at a dose of 6mg/kg increased exercise time during electrical cycling. [113]
  21. In highly resistance-trained males, caffeine ingestion at 7mg/kg favorably affected some strength parameters. [114]
  22. Several studies found that caffeine may help improve exercise performance by relieving post-workout muscle pain. [115-117]
  23. Studies found that acute caffeine ingestion may help improve strength and power during short-term high-intensity exercise performance. [118-122]

Helps Lose Weight

This readily available and natural substance can also aid in weight loss. Studies show that caffeine has fat-burning properties:

  1. In lean and postobese volunteers, a single-dose oral administration of 100 mg caffeine increased resting metabolic rate of by 3-4%. [123 ]Resting metabolic rate is the rate at which your body burns energy at rest.
  2. A study found that caffeine improved weight maintenance through thermogenesis, fat oxidation, and balancing energy intake. [124]
  3. An analysis of multiple studies found that caffeine consumption was associated with reduction in weight, body mass index (BMI), and body fat. [125]
  4. In weight loss maintainers and individuals from the general population, caffeine supplementation was associated with consistent weight loss maintenance. [126]
  5. In moderately obese subjects, high caffeine intake was associated with weight loss through thermogenesis, fat oxidation, and suppression of leptin (obesity hormone or fat hormone). [127]
  6. In men and women with no chronic diseases, increased caffeine consumption was associated with long-term weight reduction. [128]
  7. In overweight and obese women, supplementation of green coffee bean extract for 8 weeks was associated with body fat reduction. [129]
  8. In rats, caffeine ingestion prior to training sessions increased fat loss. [130]

Lowers Risk of Diabetes

Consuming caffeine is a cost-effective way to lower your risk of diabetes. Studies show that caffeine can significantly reduce the development of high blood sugar levels:

  1. Consumption of coffee on a daily basis was associated with a significant reduction in type 2 diabetes risk. [131-151]
  2. A study found that the anti-diabetic effect of coffee can be attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. [152-153]
  3. In men and women with normal glucose tolerance, a high level of coffee consumption was associated with a reduced risk of deterioration of blood sugar metabolism. [154]
  4. In younger and middle-aged women, moderate consumption of both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee (one cup per day) lowered the risk of type 2 diabetes. [155]
  5. A study found that participants who drank 4 to 6 cups and more than 6 to 7 cups of coffee per day had a lower risk of type 2 diabetes compared with those who drank less than 2 cups per day. [156]
  6. Studies found that higher habitual coffee consumption was associated with higher insulin sensitivity (body’s response to the effects of insulin) and a lower risk for type 2 diabetes. [157-158]
  7. In women with diabetes, caffeine showed a dose-dependent protective effect. [159]
  8. A study found that long-term (2–16 weeks) coffee consumption improved blood sugar metabolism. [160]
  9. In sedentary subjects with normal and high blood sugar levels, caffeine improved the rate of glucose uptake. [161]
  10. A study found that caffeine is superior than placebo at reducing blood sugar levels. [162]
  11. In middle-aged Japanese men, consumption of 5 cups of coffee or more per day inhibited postprandial hyperglycemia. [163]
  12. A study found that higher consumption of both boiled and other types of coffee at the age of 40-45 years was associated with lower risk of being prescribed with oral antidiabetic drugs 5-20 years later. [164]
  13. In healthy volunteers, the addition of enriched instant coffee in the diet appears to have a significant effect on the absorption and utilization of blood sugar. [165]
  14. In rats, combined long-term caffeine intake and exercise prevented the development of diabetic nephropathy (kidney damage associated with diabetes). [166]
  15. In rats, caffeine intake reversed aging-induced insulin resistance. [167]

Protects the Liver

There is increasing evidence supporting the benefits of coffee on liver health. Studies show that a cup of coffee and ingestion of caffeine products daily may help ward off liver disease:

  1. Studies found that higher coffee consumption was associated with lower risk of liver cirrhosis (scarring). [168-173]
  2. In patients with preexisting liver disease, coffee intake more than 2 cups per day has been shown to lower the prevalence of liver scarring, liver cancer, and related deaths. [174-176]
  3. An analysis of multiple studies assessing the benefits of coffee on liver health found that caffeine has the ability to reduce advancement of fibrotic disease in a variety of chronic liver diseases, and reduce replication of hepatitis C virus. [177]
  4. A study found that chlorogenic acid, which is present in regular coffee, reduced the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. [178]
  5. Experimental studies found that coffee improves liver health by reducing fat accumulation and collagen deposition in the liver, promoting antioxidant capacity, and lowering the levels of several inflammatory mediators. [179]
  6. In patients undergoing liver biopsy, consumption of caffeine was associated with less severe hepatic fibrosis. [180]
  7. In a large number of subjects from the general population, coffee consumption improved the levels of liver enzymes. [181]
  8. In mice, caffeine reduced the levels of lipids in the liver. [182]
  9. In rats, the combination of caffeine and a liver supplement reduced smoking-induced liver injury. [183]

Fights Cancer

Consumption of caffeine is also a safe and effective way to ward off various types of cancer. Numerous clinical trials suggest that consumption of caffeine products can dramatically reduce cancer risk:

  1. Studies found that regular coffee consumption was associated with a 40% lower risk of liver cancer. [184-188]
  2. Studies also found that coffee consumption was associated with a lower incidence of oral and pharynx cancer. [189-195]
  3. Higher coffee consumption was also associated with a lower risk of esophageal cancer. [196-197]
  4. Habitual coffee intake may help prevent cancer by reducing harmful oxidation processes in the body. [198]
  5. A study found that increased caffeine intake and caffeinated coffee consumption may be protective against skin cancer. [199]
  6. Multiple cell studies found that caffeine has the ability to induce programmed cell death (apoptosis) of gastric cancer cells by activating the caspase-9/−3 pathway. [200-205]
  7. In patients with stage III colon cancer, higher coffee intake was associated with significantly reduced cancer recurrence and death. [206]
  8. In patients with metastatic carcinoma or lymphoma, caffeine-potentiated chemotherapy was associated with greater than 30% gross tumor shrinkage and increased survival time. [207]
  9. In patients with desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT), a rare tumor of the abdominal cavity, caffeine-assisted chemotherapy prevented local relapse and distant metastases. [208]
  10. In the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian cancer screening trial, researchers found a decreased risk of endometrial cancer for coffee intake. [209]
  11. In Japanese women, daily drinking of 1-2 cups and 3 or more cups of coffee per day reduced the risk of endometrial cancer. [210]
  12. The Three‐Prefecture Cohort Study found that increased coffee consumption resulted in a decreased risk of all‐sites cancer incidence and mortality. [211]
  13. A study involving 206 096 participants found that coffee consumption may decrease the risk of prostate cancer. [212]
  14. An analysis of multiple studies also found that coffee consumption may lower the risk of fatal prostate cancer. [213-216]
  15. A study found that countries which commonly consumed green tea have low ovarian cancer incidence. [217]
  16. In females, high black tea intake reduced the risk of bladder cancer. [218]
  17. In human glioma cells, a type of tumor in the brain or the spine, treatment with caffeine induced cell cycle arrest and caspase-dependent cell death, supporting its potential use in chemotherapeutic options for malignant cancer cells. [219-221]
  18. In human sarcoma cells, a malignant tumor of the connective tissue, caffeine showed growth-inhibitory effect through induction of cell death. [222]
  19. In human breast cancer cells, caffeine treatment prevented breast tumor growth/recurrence through inhibition of the procarcinogenic effects. [223]
  20. In human lung cancer cell lines, caffeine promoted cell death through a cell cycle-independent mechanism. [224]
  21. In human leukemia cells, caffeine induced cell cycle arrest and programmed cell death. [225]
  22. In mice, administration of green tea, coffee and caffeine inhibited the development of skin cancer by inducing programmed cell death of tumors. [226]
  23. In mice exposed to ultraviolet B radiation, caffeine prevented cancer progression through inhibition of cell growth signal. [227]

Lowers Stroke Risk

Caffeine consumption can also dramatically reduce the risk of one of the most fatal diseases in the world. According to numerous clinical trials, a daily dose of caffeine may help prevent the prevalence of stroke and related deaths:

  1. An analysis of multiple clinical trials found that coffee consumption of 4 cups or more daily showed a preventive effect on stroke. [228]
  2. In middle-aged Korean women, higher coffee consumption showed protective benefits with regards to stroke risk. [229]
  3. In male smokers aged 50 to 69 years without a history of stroke, high consumption of coffee and tea reduced the risk of cerebral infarction (severe brain tissue damage caused by inadequate blood flow). [230]
  4. In Japanese (aged 45-75 years) without cardiovascular disease and cancer, higher green tea and coffee consumption (greater than or equal to 4 cups per day) resulted in a significantly lower risk of stroke. [231]
  5. In the Nurses’ Health Study, researchers found that long-term coffee consumption may reduce risk of stroke. [232]
  6. In a study involving 34,670 women without a history of cardiovascular disease or cancer, researchers found that low or no coffee consumption was associated with an increased risk of stroke. [233]
  7. Data from 9 studies showed that consumption of either green or black tea at 3 cups daily could prevent the onset of ischemic stroke. [234]
  8. In patients with incident ischemic stroke and control subjects, a significant decrease in ischemic stroke risk was observed for drinking 1-2 cups of tea daily when compared with infrequent or nondrinkers. [235]
  9. In young adults (17 years and above), heavier daily coffee consumption was associated with decreased stroke prevalence. [236]

Maintains Healthy Heart

Caffeine is also good for the heart. There is strong scientific evidence supporting the cardioprotective effects of this powerful nootropic:

  1. An analysis of several studies found that higher coffee consumption was associated with low overall relative risk of cardiovascular disease. [237]
  2. A study involving 41,836 postmenopausal women aged 55-69 found that coffee consumption may inhibit inflammation and thereby reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. [238]
  3. In type 2 diabetic patients, coffee drinking was associated with reduced cardiovascular disease mortality. [239]
  4. A study found a lower risk of coronary heart disease among moderate coffee drinkers which can be attributed to the antioxidant properties of coffee. [240]
  5. The Nurses’ Health Study I found that higher coffee consumption was associated with lower markers of inflammation and reduced incidence of endothelial dysfunction (damage to thin layers of blood vessels). [241]
  6. In healthy Japanese men and women, higher caffeine intake from coffee, green tea and oolong tea was associated with a reduced risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease. [242]
  7. In men and women, coffee consumption may have favorable effects on morality due to all causes and to cardiovascular disease. [243]
  8. A study found that high tea consumption was associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease mortality. [244]
  9. In separate groups of women and men, caffeine administration at 3.3 mg/kg increased cardiac output in women, whereas increased vascular resistance (resistance that must be overcome to push blood and create flow) was observed in men. [245]
  10. The Scottish Heart Health Study found that coffee and tea consumption may help avoid heart disease. [246]
  11. In older subjects without moderate or severe hypertension, caffeinated coffee consumption was associated with lower risk of coronary heart disease mortality and heart valve disease development or progression. [247-248]
  12. In survivors of acute myocardial infarction, coffee consumption was associated with improved prognosis. [249]
  13. In a 13-year study involving 37 514 participants who were observed for the occurrence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, researchers found that high coffee and tea consumption were associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease mortality. [250]
  14. A recent German study found that consumption of 4 cups of coffee daily was associated with better heart muscle cell function and longer life of heart muscle cells. [251]

Fights Hair Loss

Age-related hair loss can significantly affect one’s self confidence and quality of life. Interestingly, there’s a good deal of studies supporting the beneficial effects of caffeine on hair health:

  1. In men with androgenetic alopecia (male-pattern baldness), administration of a caffeine-based topical liquid led to a 10.59% improvement in the active growth phase of hair follicles. [252]
  2. Studies found that topical application of caffeine in men with androgenetic alopecia may help promote hair growth by inhibiting the enzyme phosphodiesterase and improving barrier function and follicular penetration. [253-257]
  3. A study found that injection of a solution containing caffeine for 12 months in men with androgenetic alopecia resulted in satisfaction with the results of the treatment. [258]
  4. In men with androgenetic alopecia, administration of a caffeine-containing shampoo was more efficacious at reducing hair loss intensity and improving hair strength. [259]
  5. In human hair follicles, treatment with caffeine alone led to a significant stimulation of hair follicle growth. [260-261]
  6. In men suffering from androgenetic alopecia, application of lotion containing caffeine increased tensile strength of hair and decreased hair loss after 2-4 months of treatment. [262]

Improves Sexual Function

According to studies, men suffering from erectile dysfunction (ED) and women experiencing sexual problems can benefit from drinking coffee and consuming caffeine-rich products:

  1. In overweight/obese and hypertensive men, caffeine intake at a dose of 170-375 mg/day reduced the odds of prevalent ED. [263]
  2. In the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, researchers found that regular coffee intake was associated with lower risk of ED. [264]
  3. In hypertensive women, tea drinking was positively related with sexual orgasm and sexual satisfaction. [265]
  4. A study found that caffeine may help improve penile erection by increasing the levels of nitric oxide, a substance that enhance blood flow by relaxing blood vessels. [266]
  5. In diabetic rats, 8-week administration of caffeine improved erectile function. [267]

Improves Kidney Health

An increasing body of clinical evidence also supports the beneficial effect of caffeine on kidney health. Studies show that caffeine can help prevent lethal kidney disease and improve kidney function:

  1. In a 20-year study of 217,883 healthy participants, researchers found that high caffeine intake was associated with a lower prevalence of kidney stones. [268]
  2. In 4863 non-institutionalized USA adults with chronic kidney disease, higher caffeine consumption was associated with reduced all-cause mortality. [269]
  3. The Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) found that daily intake of caffeine-containing foods such as tea, chocolate, and coffee was associated with decreased risk of the development of chronic kidney disease. [270]
  4. A new study in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation found that consuming more caffeine may help extend life expectancy of people with kidney disease. [271]
  5. Studies found that caffeine prevents kidney stones by increasing urinary excretion of calcium and other minerals. [272-277]
  6. Caffeine can also help cleanse the body and kidney by increasing the production of urine. [278]

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