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Ginsenoside Rg3

Ginsenoside Rg3 is a natural product from Panax ginseng. This plant compound is highly rich in red ginseng. It is essential for nerve cell and cardiovascular protection. Rg3 is also known to exert potent anti-cancer effects and brain-boosting properties. You can reap the health benefits of this natural plant compound by taking its tablet or capsule form.

Overall Health Benefits

  • Improves memory and prevents brain disorders [1-8]
  • Lowers risk of heart disease [9-11]
  • Lowers blood pressure [12-13]
  • Boosts immune function [14-15]
  • Helps lose weight [16-17]
  • Accelerates wound healing [18-21]
  • Prevents cancer [22-25]
  • Improves mood [26-27]

Proven Health Benefits

Improves Memory and Prevents Brain Disorders

A convincing number of studies suggest that Rg3 can improve memory and prevent brain disorders through its neuroprotective effects:

  • In mice, oral administration of Rg3 for 4 days significantly reversed memory impairment induced by ethanol. [1]
  • In cultured rat brain cells, Rg3 protected against glutamate-induced neurodegeneration. [2]
  • A cell study reported that pretreatment of brain cells with Rg3 resulted in increased survival rate via its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. [3]
  • In an animal model of brain inflammation, Rg3 supplementation at 20 and 30 mg/kg oral doses significantly reduced inflammation by reducing the levels of inflammatory substances such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and IL-6 mRNA. [4]
  • In rats with cognitive impairment, Rg3 treatment restored learning and memory functions. [5]
  • A cell study also reported that Rg3 prevented brain inflammation by reducing inflammatory stimuli in the majority of brain tissues. [6]
  • A study conducted on animal models of Alzheimer’s disease found that Rg3 can help prevent or slow the development of neurological disorders due to its anti-inflammatory activity in the brain. [7]
  • A cell study found that Rg3 can help prevent Alzheimer’s disease by reducing the levels of abnormal protein structures in the brain. [8]

Lowers Risk of Heart Disease

Studies suggest that Rg3 offers cardioprotective effects:

  • In rats, Rg3 administration protected against heart impairment. [9]
  • In mice with heart injury, Rg3 treatment prevented the development of heart attack. [10]
  • In rats, Rg3 delayed the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). [11]

Lowers Blood Pressure

Evidence shows that Rg3 has antihypertensive properties:

  • In rats, daily oral administration of Rg3 lowered systolic and diastolic blood pressure. [12]
  • A review of several studies showed that Rg3 is beneficial in treating hypertensive patients. [13]

Boosts Immune Function

Studies report that Rg3 also has immune-boosting properties:

  • In an animal study, Rg3 treatment protected the animals from the lethality of the H1N1 virus. [14]
  • In mice, Rg3 treatment stimulated an immune response by boosting the levels of specific immune cells such as immunoglobulin G. [15]

Helps Lose Weight

Evidence shows that Rg3 can help promote fat loss:

  • A review of mice studies suggested that Rg3 could potentially reduce body fat percentage. [16]
  • A study in obese mice showed that Rg3 treatment resulted in better metabolism. [17]

Accelerates Wound Healing

There’s also a good deal of evidence supporting the beneficial effects of Rg3 on wound healing.

  • Studies showed that Rg3 consumption can help improve wound healing through its anti-inflammatory effects. [18-19]
  • Studies show that Rg3 can help prevent the formation of raised scars after an injury. [20]
  • A study also found that Rg3 can help prevent keloid scar formation by promoting collagen synthesis. [21]

Prevents Cancer

A convincing number of high-quality studies found that Rg3 has anti-cancer effects:

  • A study reported that Rg3 can be used as an anti-tumor medicine. [22]
  • A study showed that Rg3 can help prevent esophageal cancer. [23]
  • In mice bearing H460 lung cancer cells, 28-day oral treatment with Rg3 at 100mg/kg significantly reduced tumor growth. [24]
  • In human esophageal cancer, Rg3 protected against esophageal cancer by promoting programmed cell death. [25]

Improves Mood

Studies show that Rg3 also has antidepressant effects:

  • In a mouse study, Rg3’s benefit on immunoregulation helped in reducing signs of depression. [26]
  • A review of studies showed that Rg3 treatment reduced depressive symptoms in patients with low mood. [27]

References:

  1. Bao HY, Zhang J, Yeo SJ, Myung CS, Kim HM, Kim JM, Park JH, Cho J, Kang JS. Memory enhancing and neuroprotective effects of selected ginsenosides. Arch Pharm Res. 2005 Mar;28(3):335-42. doi: 10.1007/BF02977802. PMID: 15832823.
  2. Kim, Y. C., Kim, S. R., Markelonis, G. J., and Oh, T. H., Ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg3 protect cultured rat cortical cells from glutamate-induced neurodegeneration.J. Neurosci. Res., 53, 426–432 (1998).
  3. Joo SS, Yoo YM, Ahn BW, Nam SY, Kim YB, Hwang KW, Lee DI. Prevention of inflammation-mediated neurotoxicity by Rg3 and its role in microglial activation. Biol Pharm Bull. 2008 Jul;31(7):1392-6. doi: 10.1248/bpb.31.1392. PMID: 18591781.
  4. Park SM, Choi MS, Sohn NW, Shin JW. Ginsenoside Rg3 attenuates microglia activation following systemic lipopolysaccharide treatment in mice. Biol Pharm Bull. 2012;35(9):1546-52. doi: 10.1248/bpb.b12-00393. PMID: 22975507.
  5. Jang SK, Yu JM, Kim ST, Kim GH, Park DW, Lee DI, Joo SS. An Aβ42 uptake and degradation via Rg3 requires an activation of caveolin, clathrin and Aβ-degrading enzymes in microglia. Eur J Pharmacol. 2015 Jul 5;758:1-10. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2015.03.071. Epub 2015 Apr 4. PMID: 25848967.
  6. Available at http://koreascience.or.kr/article/JAKO201201052161301.page.
  7. Lee B, Sur B, Park J, Kim SH, Kwon S, Yeom M, Shim I, Lee H, Hahm DH. Ginsenoside rg3 alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced learning and memory impairments by anti-inflammatory activity in rats.
  8. Biomol Ther (Seoul). 2013 Sep 30;21(5):381-90. doi: 10.4062/biomolther.2013.053. PMID: 24244826; PMCID: PMC3825202.
  9. Aalinkeel R, Kutscher HL, Singh A, Cwiklinski K, Khechen N, Schwartz SA, Prasad PN, Mahajan SD.
  10. Neuroprotective effects of a biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-ginsenoside Rg3 nanoformulation: a potential nanotherapy for Alzheimer’s disease? J Drug Target. 2018 Feb;26(2):182-193. doi: 10.1080/1061186X.2017.1354002. Epub 2017 Jul 17. PMID: 28697660.
  11. Available at https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/6967853/.
  12. Available at https://cdt.amegroups.com/article/view/37868/30147.
  13. Lim, Dong Yoon1; Koh, Young Youp2 PS 04-21 GINSENOSIDE-RG3 INHIBITS CATECHOLAMINE SECRETION FROM THE PERFUSED RAT ADRENAL GLAND, Journal of Hypertension: September 2016 – Volume 34 – Issue – p e138-e139
    doi: 10.1097/01.hjh.0000500255.90789.ef.
  14. Available at https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1934578X19900712.
  15. Lee H, Kong G, Tran Q, Kim C, Park J, Park J. Relationship Between Ginsenoside Rg3 and Metabolic Syndrome. Front Pharmacol. 2020;11:130. Published 2020 Feb 25. doi:10.3389/fphar.2020.00130.
  16. Available at https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0171936.
  17. Available from https://academic.oup.com/intimm/article/24/7/465/821288.
  18. Available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7052819/.
  19. Lee, J., Yoon, S., Lee, S., Lee, M., Jung, H., Kim, T., Yoon, S., Choi, I., Kim, I., Chung, S., Lee, H., Min, J., & Park, Y. (2017). Ginsenoside Rg3 ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis through downregulation of STAT5-PPARγ, Journal of Endocrinology, 235(3), 223-235. Retrieved Jan 22, 2021, from https://joe.bioscientifica.com/view/journals/joe/235/3/JOE-17-0233.xml.
  20. Available at https://www.mdpi.com/2218-273X/10/3/444/htm.
  21. Kang S, Park SJ, Lee AY, Huang J, Chung HY, Im DS. Ginsenoside Rg3 promotes inflammation resolution through M2 macrophage polarization. J Ginseng Res. 2018 Jan;42(1):68-74. doi: 10.1016/j.jgr.2016.12.012. Epub 2017 Jan 1. PMID: 29348724; PMCID: PMC5766702.
  22. Cheng L, Sun X, Hu C, Jin R, Sun B, Shi Y, Zhang L, Cui W, Zhang Y. In vivo inhibition of hypertrophic scars by implantable ginsenoside-Rg3-loaded electrospun fibrous membranes. Acta Biomater. 2013 Dec;9(12):9461-73. doi: 10.1016/j.actbio.2013.07.040. Epub 2013 Aug 9. PMID: 23938200.
  23. Cheng L, Sun X, Hu C, Jin R, Sun B, Shi Y, Cui W, Zhang Y. In vivo early intervention and the therapeutic effects of 20(s)-ginsenoside rg3 on hypertrophic scar formation. PLoS One. 2014 Dec 12;9(12):e113640. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0113640. PMID: 25502572; PMCID: PMC4264739.
  24. Tang M, Bian W, Cheng L, Zhang L, Jin R, Wang W, Zhang Y. Ginsenoside Rg3 inhibits keloid fibroblast proliferation, angiogenesis and collagen synthesis in vitro via the TGF‑β/Smad and ERK signaling pathways. Int J Mol Med. 2018 Mar;41(3):1487-1499. doi: 10.3892/ijmm.2018.3362. Epub 2018 Jan 4. PMID: 29328420; PMCID: PMC5819908.
  25. Available at https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/25/21/4905/pdf.
  26. Park D, Bae DK, Jeon JH, Lee J, Oh N, Yang G, Yang YH, Kim TK, Song J, Lee SH, Song BS, Jeon TH, Kang SJ, Joo SS, Kim SU, Kim YB. Immunopotentiation and antitumor effects of a ginsenoside Rg₃-fortified red ginseng preparation in mice bearing H460 lung cancer cells. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2011 May;31(3):397-405. doi: 10.1016/j.etap.2011.01.008. Epub 2011 Mar 8. PMID: 21787710.
  27. Liu H, Zhao J, Fu R, Zhu C, Fan D. The ginsenoside Rk3 exerts anti-esophageal cancer activity in vitro and in vivo by mediating apoptosis and autophagy through regulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. PLoS One. 2019 May 15;14(5):e0216759. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0216759. PMID: 31091245; PMCID: PMC6519821.
  28. Available at https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jafc.7b02386.
  29. Available at https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/cpr.12696.
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