Most HIV-infected men have testosterone deficiency.  Treatment of hypogonadal HIV-infected men with testosterone supplementation can lead to increased muscle mass and improvements in depression as well as quality of life. In HIV-infected women, testosterone treatment has shown improvements in weight and social functioning. 
In one study involving seventy-four HIV-infected patients who received bi-weekly testosterone injections followed by 12 weeks of open-label maintenance treatment for a period of 6 weeks, the results showed improvement in symptoms of clinical hypogonadism, thus restoring sex drive and energy, alleviating depression, and increasing muscle mass. 
In another study, Coodley et al. reported that 200 mg of testosterone cypionate injections every 2 weeks for 3 months in HIV-infected patients did appear to produce an improved overall sense of well-being and muscle strength.  Researchers observed that the testosterone treatment did not produce any adverse side effects.
A study by Kong et al. assessed the effects of testosterone therapy on different body parameters of patients with HIV wasting syndrome.  After the treatment period, researchers observed that the patients had significant improvements in lean body mass, total body weight, over-all exercise functional capacity, and perceived quality of life without any adverse side effects.
Gains in strength in all exercise categories and greater increase in thigh muscle volume were also observed by Bhasin et al. in HIV-infected men who received testosterone therapy.  The average lean body mass increased by 2.3 kg in the testosterone-treated group compared to those who received placebo.
In one large clinical trial, Blick et al. reported that HIV-infected men who received testosterone therapy for 12 months experienced significant elevations in total testosterone and free testosterone levels to within normal ranges.  In addition to this, the study participants also had significant improvement in sexual function, depression scores and body composition, and antidepressant medication use decreased in the testosterone-treated group.
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