Inflammation is the body’s natural response to injury—but in recent years, it has also been implicated in the most feared diseases that affect humankind, including rheumatoid arthritis. As it turns out, recent clinical trials have shown a strong link between low testosterone levels and inflammation, suggesting that testosterone deficiency may increase one’s risk of developing inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. [504-511]
Testosterone plays a protective role in rheumatoid arthritis. To support this, Spector et al. investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of sex hormones in inflammation-induced autoimmune conditions.  The study revealed that testosterone can decrease aromatization (process that converts testosterone into estrogen) and increase levels of anti-inflammatory 5α-reduced androgens, suggesting that testosterone protects against the development of inflammation-induced autoimmune conditions.
Current evidence from prospective trials suggests that testosterone may help improve symptoms of arthritis. A study by Holroyd et al. revealed that testosterone supplementation among patients with rheumatoid arthritis resulted in significant improvements of symptoms as well as quality of life.  In addition to this, researchers observed that the treatment did not cause any adverse side effects, suggesting that testosterone is a safe and effective therapeutic option for arthritis.
A study by Cutolo et al. showed that testosterone replacement therapy may be a valuable concomitant or adjuvant treatment to be associated with other disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in the management of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.  The same researchers also reported that testosterone replacement therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis significantly reduced the levels of IgM rheumatoid factor, a protein that is highly associated with the disease. 
In men with testosterone deficiency and rheumatoid arthritis, Malkin et al. observed that testosterone replacement therapy has immune-modulating properties.  In all of the study participants who received testosterone, a significant reduction in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-1beta and an increase in anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were observed.
A study by Van Vollenhoven et al. has also shown that testosterone does have a therapeutic benefit in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.  Improvements in symptoms as well as function of the affected body part were observed after the treatment period, suggesting that testosterone may be in par with anti-rheumatic drugs.
An overwhelming body of clinical research has also shown that aside from rheumatoid arthritis, testosterone replacement therapy may also be beneficial in patients suffering from various autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. [518-528] This suggests that testosterone may be a potential therapeutic option for these chronic, debilitating medical conditions.
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