Thyroid Hormone and Bone Health

Thyroid hormone is also vital for optimum bone health. Because this hormone plays an integral role in skeletal development and establishment of peak bone mass, several high quality studies found that it can help decrease the risk of osteoporosis and other bone disorders:
1. Deficiency or dysfunction of thyroid hormone receptors leads to growth retardation, delayed bone age, and decreased bone mineral density (BMD). [211-216]
2. T3 regulates formation of bone cartilage and bone mineralization. [217]
3. In men and women with thyroid hormone deficiency, there is a significant risk of decreased BMD and other bone disorders. [218-222]
4. In patients with thyroid cancer, higher thyroid hormone levels are associated with higher femoral neck BMD. [223]
5. In postmenopausal women, thyroid hormone level above 97.5 percentile is associated with significantly higher BMD at the femoral neck. [224]
6. In patients with thyroid dysfunction, thyroid hormone deficiency is associated with increased femoral neck bone loss, potentially contributing to increased fracture risk. [225-226]
7. Women with thyroid hormone levels in the lowest quartile have a higher incidence of vertebral fractures. [227]
8. In patients with congenital hypothyroidism, treatment with thyroid hormone improves growth and BMD. [228-229]
9. In postmenopausal women, elevated level of thyroid hormone is associated with a 5.97% increase in femoral neck bone density. [230]
10. A thyroid disorder that affects thyroid hormone levels is considered as a cause of secondary osteoporosis. [231-232]

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