GENEMEDICS APP

GENEMEDICS NUTRITION

HEALTH LIBRARY

Melatonin

Melatonin

Melatonin is a hormone that is naturally produced by the pineal gland. It is mainly secreted at night during sleep. This hormone plays a significant role in the sleep-wake cycle of animals and humans. As a dietary supplement, melatonin is often used for the treatment of sleep problems such as insomnia caused by shift work or jet lag. An overwhelming body of clinical evidence suggests that melatonin is not just beneficial in maintaining a good sleep pattern but also in different aspects of health.

Overall Health Benefits

  • Improves sleep quality [1-8]
  • Lowers risk of cardiovascular disease [9-13]
  • Prevents cancer [14-18]
  • Promotes weight loss [19-23]
  • Boosts immunity [22] [24-27]
  • Lowers blood pressure [28-32]
  • Boosts brain performance [33-36]
  • Improves mood [37-40]
  • Improves bone health [41-43]
  • Prevents age-related eye disorders [44-49]
  • Prevents wrinkles and other signs of skin aging [50-57]
  • Accelerates wound healing [58-62]
  • Reduces blood sugar levels and treats symptoms of diabetes [63-69]

Proven Health Benefits

Improves Sleep Quality

There are a lot of high-quality studies supporting the primary benefit of melatonin:

  1. A review of studies suggested that melatonin treatment was effective in treating sleep disorders. [1]
  2. A study showed that melatonin treatment demonstrated significant effects in regulating human circadian rhythm and associated disorders. [2]
  3. In patients with primary sleep disorders, melatonin was shown to improve the quality of sleep and showed a potential role in treating insomnia. [3]
  4. A review of studies showed the efficacy of melatonin in treating sleep problems without any major side effects. [4]
  5. A review of studies presented that melatonin successfully reduced sleep onset, delayed sleep phase syndrome, and regulated the sleeping patterns of blind patients. [5]
  6. In blind patients and those who take shifts at work, melatonin was found to be an effective treatment in the resynchronization of their circadian rhythm. [6]
  7. A review of studies showed that melatonin treatment produced favorable effects on sleep outcomes. [7]
  8. In children with severe chronic sleep disorders, oral melatonin administration improved sleeping patterns. [8]

Lowers Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

Studies show that melatonin can help protect against heart disease:

  1. A review of studies showed that melatonin can help treat heart disease related to heart muscle injury and low blood supply. [9]
  2. A study has shown that low levels of melatonin were associated with increased risk of heart complications. [10]
  3. In patients with cardiovascular diseases, low levels of melatonin were found in patients with coronary artery disorder, arterial hypertension, and congestive heart failure. [11]
  4. In patients with heart failure (HF), administration of melatonin reversed the HF-associated pathological processes. [12]
  5. In rodents and humans, melatonin’s cardioprotective and anti-oxidative actions limited the frequency of heart failure, heart damage, and abnormal heart functions. [13]

Prevents Cancer

Evidence found that melatonin also has anti-cancer properties:

  1. A study showed that melatonin administration weakens cancer by inhibiting its development, progression, and metastasis (spread of cancer cells to different body parts). [14]
  2. In rats and human tumor cells, administration of melatonin demonstrated anti-cancer activities. [15]
  3. In cancer patients, melatonin administration resulted in improved cancer regression and survival, and better tolerance to chemotherapy. [16]
  4. In patients with tumors, melatonin significantly lowered the tumors’ overall survival rate. [17]
  5. A review of studies found that melatonin improved the efficacy of chemotherapy with reduced side effects. [18]

Promotes Weight Loss

Melatonin has also been found to be beneficial in overweight and obese patients:

  1. In obese patients on a calorie-restricted diet, melatonin supplementation resulted in weight reduction. [19]
  2. In postmenopausal women, melatonin administration was associated with weight reduction. [20]
  3. A review of studies suggested that melatonin supplementation was more effective for weight reduction in children and adolescents. [21]
  4. In mice on a high-fat diet, melatonin administration inhibited body mass gain and attenuated obesity-associated metabolic and inflammatory disorders. [22]
  5. In zebrafish models, melatonin treatment produced weight loss and regulated weight gain. [23]

Boosts Immunity

Melatonin can also help strengthen the immune system:

  1. A study presented that melatonin could play a potential therapeutic role in enhancing the immune functions of individuals with declining immunity. [24]
  2. A review of studies showed that melatonin could be an effective immunostimulant that provides an early immune response against viruses and parasites. [25]
  3. A study suggested that the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of melatonin can help treat influenza. [26]
  4. A study found that melatonin can be considered as a treatment for COVID-19. [27]
  5. In mice fed with a high-fat diet, oral supplementation with melatonin protected against metabolic and inflammatory disorders. [22]

Lowers Blood Pressure

Studies suggest that melatonin has anti-hypertensive properties:

  1. A review of studies concluded that melatonin was effective in blood pressure regulation. [28]
  2. In patients with nocturnal hypertension (NH), melatonin treatment before bedtime significantly lowered systolic blood pressure. [29]
  3. In patients with NH, the use of controlled-release melatonin was safe and successful in treating the condition. [30]
  4. In diabetic patients with essential hypertension, melatonin treatment restored normal blood pressure. [31]
  5. In human and animal studies, melatonin consistently demonstrated its nocturnal BP-lowering effects. [32]

Boosts Brain Performance

Evidence also supports the beneficial effects of melatonin on brain health:

  1. In elderly individuals, nightly administration of melatonin was found to be effective in treating age-related cognitive decline. [33]
  2. In elderly patients, higher physiological levels of melatonin were found to be associated with reduced occurrence of cognitive impairments and mood disorders. [34]
  3. In elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment, administration of immediate-release melatonin safely improved some aspects of their memory without any side effects. [35]
  4. In patients who received oral melatonin, significant improvements in symptoms Alzheimer’s disease were observed. [36]

Improves Mood

Melatonin also has mood-boosting properties:

  1. In healthy men, it was found that orally administered melatonin exhibited short but significant antidepressant-like effects. [37]
  2. In patients with chronic pain, a daily dose of melatonin improved mood and anxiety levels. [38]
  3. A study showed that the resynchronization of circadian rhythm from melatonin treatment offers a new strategy in treating depression. [39]
  4. In postmenopausal women with appetite disorders, the combined administration of melatonin and fluoxetine resulted in better mood and sleep quality. [40]

Improves Bone Health

Supplementation with melatonin has been found to improve bone health:

  1. A study showed that melatonin plays a role in the development of the teeth and bones. [41]
  2. In dogs with dental implants, melatonin promoted new bone formation around the titanium implants. [42]
  3. In mice with bone disorders, melatonin significantly improved bone mass by enhancing matrix mineralization. [43]

Prevents Age-Related Eye Disorders

Melatonin is also essential for optimum eye health:

  1. In patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), an eye condition that affects middle vision, daily supplementation of melatonin produced protective effects for the retina and delayed eye degeneration. [44]
  2. In rats, melatonin supplementation resulted in reduced risk and severity of retinopathy. [45]
  3. A study suggested that the strong antioxidative properties of melatonin present a protective role against AMD. [46]
  4. In AMD patients, nightly melatonin supplementation was found to be useful in the treatment of the disease. [47]
  5. A study found that melatonin may play a role in the treatment of eye issues like glaucoma and AMD. [48]
  6. A study reported that melatonin can help improve eye health by modulating many retinal functions. [49]

Prevents Wrinkles and other Signs of Skin Aging

Studies show that melatonin has anti-aging effects on the skin:

  1. A study reported that melatonin exerts its anti-aging effects through its antioxidative properties. [50]
  2. In women, skin application of melatonin was found to be effective in improving hydration and tone. [51]
  3. In human skin, application of melatonin exerted protective effects against UV-induced solar damage. [52]
  4. A study showed that melatonin’s UV protection was able to improve or reverse the signs of skin aging. [53]
  5. In rats, melatonin supplementation exhibited anti-aging effects by reducing age-related skin changes. [54]
  6. A study reported that decreased levels of melatonin were associated with increased UV-induced DNA damage. [55]
  7. In women with aging skin, the application of melatonin-based creams significantly improved skin tonicity and hydration and reduced signs of skin aging. [56]
  8. In UV-exposed human skin, nightly application of a melatonin-containing cream significantly decreased skin damage. [57]

Accelerates Wound Healing

Evidence also suggests that melatonin has regenerative properties:

  1. In patients with diabetic wounds, melatonin improved wound healing by preventing cell death. [58]
  2. In mice, melatonin administration produced beneficial effects in wound healing by improving angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels). [59]
  3. In rat models, melatonin treatment greatly improved scar formation and quality of wound healing. [60]
  4. In diabetic mice, melatonin protected cells against programmed cell death and dysfunction which in turn improved wound healing. [61]
  5. In diabetic rats, melatonin accelerated the healing of gastric ulcers. [62]

Reduces Blood Sugar Levels and Treats Symptoms of Diabetes

Melatonin is also beneficial for people with diabetes and elevated blood sugar levels:

  1. A study reported that melatonin reduces blood sugar levels by improving insulin secretion. [63]
  2. A study showed that melatonin supplementation can treat circadian system disturbance-induced insulin resistance and blood sugar intolerance. [64]
  3. A review of studies showed that melatonin administration significantly reduced fasting glucose, a measure of blood sugar. [65]
  4. A study also reported that melatonin exerts its anti-diabetic effects by reducing cell death and promoting antioxidant production. [66]
  5. In women, lower melatonin secretions were associated with higher risk of type 2 diabetes. [67]
  6. A study suggested that melatonin supplementation can help prevent type 2 diabetes caused by disorganized circadian rhythm. [68]
  7. A study showed that melatonin could inhibit the development of diabetic complications by regulating the production of free radicals. [69]

References:

  1. Xie Z, Chen F, Li WA, Geng X, Li C, Meng X, Feng Y, Liu W, Yu F. A review of sleep disorders and melatonin. Neurol Res. 2017 Jun;39(6):559-565. doi: 10.1080/01616412.2017.1315864. Epub 2017 May 1. PMID: 28460563.
  2. Zisapel N. New perspectives on the role of melatonin in human sleep, circadian rhythms and their regulation. Br J Pharmacol. 2018;175(16):3190-3199. doi:10.1111/bph.14116.
  3. Ferracioli-Oda E, Qawasmi A, Bloch MH. Meta-analysis: melatonin for the treatment of primary sleep disorders. PLoS One. 2013 May 17;8(5):e63773. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063773. PMID: 23691095; PMCID: PMC3656905.
  4. Tordjman S, Chokron S, Delorme R, et al. Melatonin: Pharmacology, Functions and Therapeutic Benefits. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2017;15(3):434-443. doi:10.2174/1570159X14666161228122115.
  5. Auld F, Maschauer EL, Morrison I, Skene DJ, Riha RL. Evidence for the efficacy of melatonin in the treatment of primary adult sleep disorders. Sleep Med Rev. 2017 Aug;34:10-22. doi: 10.1016/j.smrv.2016.06.005. Epub 2016 Jul 20. PMID: 28648359.
  6. Kostoglou-Athanassiou I. Therapeutic applications of melatonin. Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab. 2013;4(1):13-24. doi:10.1177/2042018813476084.
  7. Gray C, Ryce A. Melatonin for the Treatment of Insomnia: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness, Cost-Effectiveness, and Guidelines [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health; 2019 Feb 22. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK544670/.
  8. Jan JE, Espezel H, Appleton RE. The treatment of sleep disorders with melatonin. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1994 Feb;36(2):97-107. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.1994.tb11818.x. PMID: 8132132.
  9. Sun H, Gusdon AM, Qu S. Effects of melatonin on cardiovascular diseases: progress in the past year. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2016;27(4):408-413. doi:10.1097/MOL.0000000000000314.
  10. Sewerynek E. Melatonin and the cardiovascular system. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2002 Apr;23 Suppl 1:79-83. PMID: 12019357.
  11. Pandi-Perumal SR, BaHammam AS, Ojike NI, Akinseye OA, Kendzerska T, Buttoo K, Dhandapany PS, Brown GM, Cardinali DP. Melatonin and Human Cardiovascular Disease. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2017 Mar;22(2):122-132. doi: 10.1177/1074248416660622. Epub 2016 Jul 27. PMID: 27450357.
  12. Nduhirabandi F, Maarman GJ. Melatonin in Heart Failure: A Promising Therapeutic Strategy?. Molecules. 2018;23(7):1819. Published 2018 Jul 22. doi:10.3390/molecules23071819.
  13. Reiter RJ, Tan DX, Paredes SD, Fuentes-Broto L. Beneficial effects of melatonin in cardiovascular disease. Ann Med. 2010 May 6;42(4):276-85. doi: 10.3109/07853890903485748. PMID: 20455793.
  14. Reiter RJ, Rosales-Corral SA, Tan DX, et al. Melatonin, a Full Service Anti-Cancer Agent: Inhibition of Initiation, Progression and Metastasis. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18(4):843. Published 2017 Apr 17. doi:10.3390/ijms18040843.
  15. Li Y, Li S, Zhou Y, et al. Melatonin for the prevention and treatment of cancer. Oncotarget. 2017;8(24):39896-39921. doi:10.18632/oncotarget.16379.
  16. Cutando A, López-Valverde A, Arias-Santiago S, DE Vicente J, DE Diego RG. Role of melatonin in cancer treatment. Anticancer Res. 2012 Jul;32(7):2747-53. PMID: 22753734.
  17. Wang Y, Wang P, Zheng X, Du X. Therapeutic strategies of melatonin in cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Onco Targets Ther. 2018;11:7895-7908. Published 2018 Nov 8. doi:10.2147/OTT.S174100.
  18. Jung B, Ahmad N. Melatonin in cancer management: progress and promise. Cancer Res. 2006 Oct 15;66(20):9789-93. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-1776. PMID: 17047036.
  19. Szewczyk-Golec K, Rajewski P, Gackowski M, et al. Melatonin Supplementation Lowers Oxidative Stress and Regulates Adipokines in Obese Patients on a Calorie-Restricted Diet. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017;2017:8494107. doi:10.1155/2017/8494107.
  20. Walecka-Kapica E, Klupińska G, Chojnacki J, Tomaszewska-Warda K, Błońska A, Chojnacki C. The effect of melatonin supplementation on the quality of sleep and weight status in postmenopausal women. Prz Menopauzalny. 2014 Dec;13(6):334-8. doi: 10.5114/pm.2014.47986. Epub 2014 Dec 30. PMID: 26327875; PMCID: PMC4352910.
  21. Mostafavi SA, Akhondzadeh S, Mohammadi MR, Keshtkar AA, Hosseini S, Eshraghian MR, Motlagh TA, Alipour R, Keshavarz SA. Role of Melatonin in Body Weight: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Curr Pharm Des. 2017;23(23):3445-3452. doi: 10.2174/1381612822666161129145618. PMID: 27897121.
  22. de Farias TDSM, Cruz MM, de Sa RCDC, et al. Melatonin Supplementation Decreases Hypertrophic Obesity and Inflammation Induced by High-Fat Diet in Mice. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2019;10:750. Published 2019 Nov 5. doi:10.3389/fendo.2019.00750.
  23. Montalbano G, Mania M, Abbate F, Navarra M, Guerrera MC, Laura R, Vega JA, Levanti M, Germanà A. Melatonin treatment suppresses appetite genes and improves adipose tissue plasticity in diet-induced obese zebrafish. Endocrine. 2018 Nov;62(2):381-393. doi: 10.1007/s12020-018-1653-x. Epub 2018 Jun 20. PMID: 29926348.
  24. Srinivasan V, Maestroni GJ, Cardinali DP, Esquifino AI, Perumal SR, Miller SC. Melatonin, immune function and aging. Immun Ageing. 2005;2:17. Published 2005 Nov 29. doi:10.1186/1742-4933-2-17.
  25. Carrillo-Vico A, Lardone PJ, Alvarez-Sánchez N, Rodríguez-Rodríguez A, Guerrero JM. Melatonin: buffering the immune system. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14(4):8638-8683. Published 2013 Apr 22. doi:10.3390/ijms14048638.
  26. Available at https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1756464619302452.
  27. Bahrampour Juybari K, Pourhanifeh MH, Hosseinzadeh A, Hemati K, Mehrzadi S. Melatonin potentials against viral infections including COVID-19: Current evidence and new findings. Virus Res. 2020;287:198108. doi:10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198108.
  28. Hadi A, Ghaedi E, Moradi S, Pourmasoumi M, Ghavami A, Kafeshani M. Effects of Melatonin Supplementation On Blood Pressure: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Horm Metab Res. 2019 Mar;51(3):157-164. doi: 10.1055/a-0841-6638. Epub 2019 Mar 12. PMID: 30861561.
  29. Grossman E, Laudon M, Yalcin R, Zengil H, Peleg E, Sharabi Y, Kamari Y, Shen-Orr Z, Zisapel N. Melatonin reduces night blood pressure in patients with nocturnal hypertension. Am J Med. 2006 Oct;119(10):898-902. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2006.02.002. PMID: 17000226.
  30. Grossman E, Laudon M, Zisapel N. Effect of melatonin on nocturnal blood pressure: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2011;7:577-584. doi:10.2147/VHRM.S24603.
  31. Możdżan M, Możdżan M, Chałubiński M, Wojdan K, Broncel M. The effect of melatonin on circadian blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes and essential hypertension. Arch Med Sci. 2014;10(4):669-675. doi:10.5114/aoms.2014.44858.
  32. Simko F, Paulis L. Melatonin as a potential antihypertensive treatment. J Pineal Res. 2007 Apr;42(4):319-22. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-079X.2007.00436.x. PMID: 17439547.
  33. Peck JS, LeGoff DB, Ahmed I, Goebert D. Cognitive effects of exogenous melatonin administration in elderly persons: a pilot study. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2004 Jul-Aug;12(4):432-6. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajgp.12.4.432. PMID: 15249281.
  34. Obayashi K, Saeki K, Iwamoto J, Tone N, Tanaka K, Kataoka H, Morikawa M, Kurumatani N. Physiological Levels of Melatonin Relate to Cognitive Function and Depressive Symptoms: The HEIJO-KYO Cohort. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Aug;100(8):3090-6. doi: 10.1210/jc.2015-1859. Epub 2015 Jun 8. PMID: 26052727.
  35. Jean-Louis G, von Gizycki H, Zizi F. Melatonin effects on sleep, mood, and cognition in elderly with mild cognitive impairment. J Pineal Res. 1998 Oct;25(3):177-83. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-079x.1998.tb00557.x. PMID: 9745987.
  36. Brusco LI, Márquez M, Cardinali DP. Melatonin treatment stabilizes chronobiologic and cognitive symptoms in Alzheimer’s disease. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2000;21(1):39-42. PMID: 11455329.
  37. Lieberman HR, Waldhauser F, Garfield G, Lynch HJ, Wurtman RJ. Effects of melatonin on human mood and performance. Brain Res. 1984 Dec 10;323(2):201-7. doi: 10.1016/0006-8993(84)90290-7. PMID: 6525511.
  38. Castaño MY, Garrido M, Rodríguez AB, Gómez MÁ. Melatonin Improves Mood Status and Quality of Life and Decreases Cortisol Levels in Fibromyalgia. Biol Res Nurs. 2019 Jan;21(1):22-29. doi: 10.1177/1099800418811634. Epub 2018 Nov 11. PMID: 30415563.
  39. Boyce P, Hopwood M. Manipulating melatonin in managing mood. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 2013;(444):16-23. doi: 10.1111/acps.12175. Erratum in: Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 2014 Sep;130(3):240. PMID: 23909693.
  40. Chojnacki C, Walecka-Kapica E, Klupinska G, Pawlowicz M, Blonska A, Chojnacki J. Effects of fluoxetine and melatonin on mood, sleep quality and body mass index in postmenopausal women. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2015 Oct;66(5):665-71. PMID: 26579572.
  41. Liu J, Huang F, He HW. Melatonin effects on hard tissues: bone and tooth. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14(5):10063-10074. Published 2013 May 10. doi:10.3390/ijms140510063.
  42. Muñoz F, López-Peña M, Miño N, Gómez-Moreno G, Guardia J, Cutando A. Topical application of melatonin and growth hormone accelerates bone healing around dental implants in dogs. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2012 Apr;14(2):226-35. doi: 10.1111/j.1708-8208.2009.00242.x. Epub 2009 Sep 29. PMID: 19793331.
  43. Available at https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2020.00667/full.
  44. Yi C, Pan X, Yan H, Guo M, Pierpaoli W. Effects of melatonin in age-related macular degeneration. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 Dec;1057:384-92. doi: 10.1196/annals.1356.029. PMID: 16399908.
  45. Stefanova NA, Zhdankina AA, Fursova AZh, Kolosova NG. [Potential of melatonin for prevention of age-related macular degeneration: experimental study]. Adv Gerontol. 2013;26(1):122-9. Russian. PMID: 24003738.
  46. Blasiak J, Reiter RJ, Kaarniranta K. Melatonin in Retinal Physiology and Pathology: The Case of Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016;2016:6819736. doi: 10.1155/2016/6819736. Epub 2016 Sep 5. PMID: 27688828; PMCID: PMC5027321.
  47. Rastmanesh R. Potential of melatonin to treat or prevent age-related macular degeneration through stimulation of telomerase activity. Med Hypotheses. 2011 Jan;76(1):79-85. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2010.08.036. Epub 2010 Sep 29. PMID: 20884126.
  48. Lundmark PO, Pandi-Perumal SR, Srinivasan V, Cardinali DP. Role of melatonin in the eye and ocular dysfunctions. Vis Neurosci. 2006 Nov-Dec;23(6):853-62. doi: 10.1017/S0952523806230189. PMID: 17266777.
  49. Tosini G, Baba K, Hwang CK, Iuvone PM. Melatonin: an underappreciated player in retinal physiology and pathophysiology. Exp Eye Res. 2012;103:82-89. doi:10.1016/j.exer.2012.08.009.
  50. Kleszczynski K, Fischer TW. Melatonin and human skin aging. Dermatoendocrinol. 2012 Jul 1;4(3):245-52. doi: 10.4161/derm.22344. PMID: 23467217; PMCID: PMC3583885.
  51. Rusanova I, Martínez-Ruiz L, Florido J, et al. Protective Effects of Melatonin on the Skin: Future Perspectives. Int J Mol Sci. 2019;20(19):4948. Published 2019 Oct 8. doi:10.3390/ijms20194948.
  52. Day D, Burgess CM, Kircik LH. Assessing the Potential Role for Topical Melatonin in an Antiaging Skin Regimen. J Drugs Dermatol. 2018 Sep 1;17(9):966-969. PMID: 30235383.
  53. Eşrefoğlu M, Seyhan M, Gül M, Parlakpinar H, Batçioğlu K, Uyumlu B. Potent therapeutic effect of melatonin on aging skin in pinealectomized rats. J Pineal Res. 2005 Oct;39(3):231-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-079X.2005.00235.x. PMID: 16150102.
  54. Nanzadsuren T, Myatav T, Dorjkhuu A, Byamba K. Association between serum melatonin and skin aging in an urban population of Mongolia. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2020 Jun;19(6):1501-1507. doi: 10.1111/jocd.13166. Epub 2019 Sep 30. PMID: 31566872.
  55. Dong K, Goyarts E, Rella A, Pelle E, Wong YH, Pernodet N. Age Associated Decrease of MT-1 Melatonin Receptor in Human Dermal Skin Fibroblasts Impairs Protection Against UV-Induced DNA Damage. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Jan 3;21(1):326. doi: 10.3390/ijms21010326. PMID: 31947744; PMCID: PMC6982064.
  56. Milani M, Sparavigna A. Antiaging efficacy of melatonin-based day and night creams: a randomized, split-face, assessor-blinded proof-of-concept trial. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2018 Jan 24;11:51-57. doi: 10.2147/CCID.S153905. PMID: 29416368; PMCID: PMC5788993.
  57. Available at https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13555-020-00443-2.
  58. Song R, Ren L, Ma H, Hu R, Gao H, Wang L, Chen X, Zhao Z, Liu J. Melatonin promotes diabetic wound healing in vitro by regulating keratinocyte activity. Am J Transl Res. 2016 Nov 15;8(11):4682-4693. PMID: 27904671; PMCID: PMC5126313.
  59. Soybir G, Topuzlu C, Odabaş O, Dolay K, Bilir A, Köksoy F. The effects of melatonin on angiogenesis and wound healing. Surg Today. 2003;33(12):896-901. doi: 10.1007/s00595-003-2621-3. PMID: 14669079.
  60. Available at https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1600-079X.2007.00541.x.
  61. Jin, H., Zhang, Z., Wang, C. et al. Melatonin protects endothelial progenitor cells against AGE-induced apoptosis via autophagy flux stimulation and promotes wound healing in diabetic mice. Exp Mol Med 50, 1–15 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s12276-018-0177-z.
  62. Magierowski M, Jasnos K, Brzozowska I, Drozdowicz D, Sliwowski Z, Nawrot E, Szczyrk U, Kwiecień S. Melatonina jako czynnik leczniczy wzgledem wrzodów zoładka w warunkach eksperymentalnej cukrzycy [Melatonin as a therapeutic factor in gastric ulcer healing under experimental diabetes]. Przegl Lek. 2013;70(11):942-6. Polish. PMID: 24697035.
  63. Pourhanifeh, M.H., Hosseinzadeh, A., Dehdashtian, E. et al. Melatonin: new insights on its therapeutic properties in diabetic complications. Diabetol Metab Syndr 12, 30 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13098-020-00537-z.
  64. Sharma S, Singh H, Ahmad N, Mishra P, Tiwari A. The role of melatonin in diabetes: therapeutic implications. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Oct;59(5):391-9. doi: 10.1590/2359-3997000000098. Epub 2015 Aug 28. PMID: 26331226.
  65. Doosti-Irani A, Ostadmohammadi V, Mirhosseini N, Mansournia MA, Reiter RJ, Kashanian M, Rahimi M, Razavi M, Asemi Z. The Effects of Melatonin Supplementation on Glycemic Control: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Horm Metab Res. 2018 Nov;50(11):783-790. doi: 10.1055/a-0752-8462. Epub 2018 Nov 5. Erratum in: Horm Metab Res. 2018 Nov;50(11):e6. PMID: 30396207.
  66. Mok JX, Ooi JH, Ng KY, Koh RY, Chye SM. A new prospective on the role of melatonin in diabetes and its complications. Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig. 2019 Nov 6;40(1):/j/hmbci.2019.40.issue-1/hmbci-2019-0036/hmbci-2019-0036.xml. doi: 10.1515/hmbci-2019-0036. PMID: 31693492.
  67. McMullan CJ, Schernhammer ES, Rimm EB, Hu FB, Forman JP. Melatonin secretion and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. JAMA. 2013 Apr 3;309(13):1388-96. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.2710. PMID: 23549584; PMCID: PMC3804914.
  68. Espino J, Rodríguez AB, Pariente JA. Melatonin and Oxidative Stress in the Diabetic State: Clinical Implications and Potential Therapeutic Applications. Curr Med Chem. 2019;26(22):4178-4190. doi: 10.2174/0929867325666180410094149. PMID: 29637854.
  69. Zephy D, Ahmad J. Type 2 diabetes mellitus: Role of melatonin and oxidative stress. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2015 Apr-Jun;9(2):127-31. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2014.09.018. Epub 2014 Oct 29. PMID: 25450812.
testimonial
before after

At the age of 60, I look and feel better than I ever have in my entire life! Switching my health program and hormone replacement therapy regimen over to Genemedics was one of the best decisions I’ve ever made in my life! Genemedics and Dr George have significantly improved my quality of life and also dramatically improved my overall health. I hav...

- Nick Cassavetes, 60 yrs old

Movie Director (“The Notebook”, “John Q”, “Alpha Dog”), Actor and Writer

Call 800-277-4041 for a Free Consultation

What to expect during your consultation:
  • Usually takes 15-30 minutes
  • Completely confidential
  • No obligation to purchase anything
  • We will discuss your symptoms along with your health and fitness goals
  • Free post-consult access for any additional questions you may have
Contact Us Page
Sending

Genemedics® Health Institute is a global premier institute dedicated to revolutionizing health and medicine through healthy lifestyle education, guidance and accountability in harmony with functional medicine. Our physician-supervised health programs are personally customized to help you reach your health and fitness goals while looking and feeling better than ever.