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Selank

Selank

Selank, previously known as TP-7, is a small protein that is artificially produced in Russia. It is commonly prescribed as an anti-anxiety drug and has no side effects or risk of addiction. By boosting the levels of neurotransmitters (brain chemicals) such as serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine, Selank ultimately improves cognition and reduces stress. Because of the unique spectrum of the pharmacological action of Selank and higher safety profile, scientists believe that it has the potential to replace tranquilizers, antidepressants, and stimulants.

Overall Health Benefits of Selank

  • Fights anxiety [1-12]
  • Improves learning ability [13-25]
  • Strengthens immune function [26-31]
  • Treats alcohol withdrawal symptoms [32-33]
  • Improves liver health [34-35]

Proven Health Benefits of Selank

Fights Anxiety

There’s a good deal of evidence that supports the potent anti-anxiety effect of Selank:

  1. In patients suffering from pre-existing anxiety disorders, the group treated with Selank had fewer anxiety symptoms. [1]
  2. In patients with phobic-anxiety- and somatoform disorders, Selank demonstrated an anti-anxiety effect that lasted for a week and improved the quality of life of the patients. [2]
  3. Administration of Selank along with the anti-anxiety drug phenazepam was associated with decreased level of undesirable side effects and had had a positive impact on the quality of life of the patients. [3-4]
  4. Selank administration was found to be more effective in alleviating symptoms in mice with severe anxiety. [5-7]
  5. In patients with generalized anxiety disorder and neurasthenia (emotional disturbance), Selank administration for 14 days had positive effect on anxiety symptoms. [8]
  6. In rats, administration of Selank eliminated the anxious response in the elevated plus maze test after 48 hours and increased exploratory behavior. [9]
  7. In rats with unpredictable chronic mild stress conditions, Selank enhanced the effect of diazepam in reducing anxiety. [10]
  8. In patients with various forms of anxiety, Selank administration decreased symptoms by inhibiting the enzyme enkephalinase. [11-12]

Improves Learning Ability and Memory

The ability of Selank to reduce anxiety and boost the levels of neurotransmitters may play an integral part in improving learning ability and memory according to studies:

  1. Selank administration (300 micrograms/kg) significantly activated the learning process in rats with initially poor learning ability compared to piracetam. [13]
  2. In rats with Parkinson’s disease, Selank improved performance in the elevated cross shaped maze test. [14]
  3. A study found that Selank may help improve learning ability by stabilizing the levels of enkephalins, which are natural peptides in the body that reduce stress. [15-19]
  4. In adult Wistar rats with brain damage, Selank administration at 300 micrograms/kg restored cognitive processes. [17]
  5. In adult rats, injection of Selank (300 µg/kg) improved sensory attention levels, learning process, and the level of investigative activity. [20]
  6. Selank administration in rats for 30 days stabilized memory traces (storage). [21-22]
  7. In monkeys, Selank exhibited anti-amnesia effects. [23]
  8. In rats, a single intranasal administration of Selank can potentially improve cognitive function by increasing brain derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF) and nerve growth factor gene (NGF). [24]
  9. A rat study also found that Selank can improve learning and memory by affecting genes involved in neurotransmission (transmission of electric signals between nerve cells). [25]

Strengthens Immune Function

Selank also exerts its immune-boosting properties by affecting the production of certain cells and substances in the body:

  1. In patients suffering from depression, administration of Selank resulted in an increase in IL-6, an inflammatory protein that destroys infection-causing microorganisms. [26-27]
  2. A cell-based study found that Selank has the ability to stimulate the release of the anti-viral molecules known as interferons. [28]
  3. In another cell-based study, Selank completely suppressed the reproduction of the influenza virus. [29]
  4. Selank also has the ability to boost the production of T helper type 1 (Th1) cells, which help fight against viral and bacterial pathogens. [30]
  5. In mice, Selank altered the genes involved in the process of inflammation (chemokines, cytokines, and its receptors). [31]

Treats Alcohol Withdrawal Symptoms

This powerful anti-anxiety drug also has beneficial effects on symptoms of alcohol withdrawal:

  1. In rats, Selank decreased alcohol-withdrawal-related anxiety in just 48 hours. [32]
  2. Administration of Selank in rats was associated with longer alcohol abstinence. [33]

Improves Liver Health

There’s also strong scientific evidence suggesting that Selank may help benefit the liver:

  1. Selank in doses of 100 and 300 μg/kg decreased the levels of free radicals in the liver of rats, suggesting that it has potent antioxidant activity. [34]
  2. Administration of Selank in doses of 300 and 1000 μg/kg in rats restored the structures of the liver cells (hepatocytes). [35]

References:

  1. Zozulia AA, Neznamov GG, Siuniakov TS, et al. [Efficacy and possible mechanisms of action of a new peptide anxiolytic selank in the therapy of generalized anxiety disorders and neurasthenia]. Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2008;108(4):38-48.
  2. Medvedev VE, Tereshchenko ON, Israelian AIu, et al. [A comparison of the anxiolytic effect and tolerability of selank and phenazepam in the treatment of anxiety disorders]. Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2014;114(7):17-22.
  3. Medvedev VE, Tereshchenko ON, Kost NV, et al. [Optimization of the treatment of anxiety disorders with selank]. Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2015;115(6):33-40.
  4. Oyemade A. New uncontrolled benzodiazepine, phenazepam, emerging drug of abuse. Innov Clin Neurosci. 2012;9(9):10.
  5. Kozlovskaia MM, Kozlovskiĭ II, Val’dman EA, Seredenin SB. [Selank and short peptides of Taftsin derivatives in regulation of adaptive behavior of animals in stress]. Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 2002;88(6):751-61.
  6. Seredenin SB, Kozlovskaia MM, Blednov IuA, et al. [The anxiolytic action of an analog of the endogenous peptide tuftsin on inbred mice with different phenotypes of the emotional stress reaction]. Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 1998;48(1):153-60.
  7. Czabak-garbacz R, Cygan B, Wolański L, Kozlovsky I. Influence of long-term treatment with tuftsin analogue TP-7 on the anxiety-phobic states and body weight. Pharmacol Rep. 2006;58(4):562-7.
  8. Uchakina ON, Uchakin PN, Miasoedov NF, et al. [Immunomodulatory effects of selank in patients with anxiety-asthenic disorders]. Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2008;108(5):71-5.
  9. Available from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1134/S1819712414020081.
  10. Anastasiya Kasian, Timur Kolomin, Lyudmila Andreeva, et al., “Peptide Selank Enhances the Effect of Diazepam in Reducing Anxiety in Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress Conditions in Rats,” Behavioural Neurology, vol. 2017, Article ID 5091027, 6 pages, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/5091027.
  11. Zozulya AA, Kost NV, Yu sokolov O, et al. The inhibitory effect of Selank on enkephalin-degrading enzymes as a possible mechanism of its anxiolytic activity. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2001;131(4):315-7.
  12. Kost NV, Sokolov OIu, Gabaeva MV, et al. [Semax and selank inhibit the enkephalin-degrading enzymes from human serum]]. Bioorg Khim. 2001;27(3):180-3.
  13. Kozlovskii II, Danchev ND. The optimizing action of the synthetic peptide Selank on a conditioned active avoidance reflex in rats. Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2003;33(7):639-43.
  14. Slominsky PA, Shadrina MI, Kolomin TA, et al. Peptides semax and selank affect the behavior of rats with 6-OHDA induced PD-like parkinsonism. Dokl Biol Sci. 2017;474(1):106-109.
  15. Kost N. V., Sokolov O., Gabaeva M. V., Grivennikov I. A., Andreeva L. A., Miasoedov N. F., et al. . (2001). Semax and selank inhibit the enkephalin-degrading enzymes from human serum. Bioorg. Khim. 27, 180–183.
  16. Sokolov O. Y., Meshavkin V. K., Kost N. V., Zozulya A. A. (2002). Effects of Selank on behavioral reactions and activities of plasma enkephalin-degrading enzymes in mice with different phenotypes of emotional and stress reactions. Bull. Exp. Biol. Med. 133, 133–135. 10.1023/A:1015582302311.
  17. Semenova T. P., Kozlovskaya M. M., Zakharova N. M., Kozlovskii I. I., Zuikov A. V. (2007). Effect of selank on cognitive processes after damage inflicted to the cerebral catecholamine system during early ontogeny. Bull. Exp. Biol. Med. 144, 689–691. 10.1007/s10517-007-0406-2.
  18. Semenova T. P., Kozlovskii I. I., Zakharova N. M., Kozlovskaia M. M. (2009). Comparison of the effects of selank and tuftsin on the metabolism of serotonin in the brain of rats pretreated with PCPA. Eksp. Klin. Farmakol. 72, 6–8.
  19. Narkevich V. B., Kudrin V. S., Klodt P. M., Pokrovskii A. A., Kozlovskaia M. M., Maiskii A. I., et al. (2008). Effects of heptapeptide selank on the content of monoamines and their metabolites in the brain of BALB/C and C57Bl/6 mice: a comparative study. Eksp. Klin. Farmakol. 71, 8–12.
  20. Semenova TP, Kozlovskaya MM, Zuikov AV, Kozlovskii II, Zakharova NM, Andreeva LA. Use of Selank to correct measures of integrative brain activity and biogenic amine levels in adult rats resulting from antenatal hypoxia. Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2008;38(2):203-7.
  21. Semenova TP, Kozlovskiĭ II, Zakharova NM, Kozlovskaia MM. [Experimental optimization of learning and memory processes by selank]. Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2010;73(8):2-5.
  22. Bruce D. Fifty years since Lashley’s In search of the Engram: refutations and conjectures. J Hist Neurosci. 2001;10(3):308-18.
  23. [Compensatory and antiamnestic effects of heptapeptide Selank in monkeys]. Zh Evol Biokhim Fiziol. 2008;44(3):284-90.
  24. Agapova TIu, Agniullin IaV, Silachev DN, et al. [Effect of semax on the temporary dynamics of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor gene expression in the rat hippocampus and frontal cortex]. Mol Gen Mikrobiol Virusol. 2008;(3):28-32.
  25. Volkova A, Shadrina M, Kolomin T, et al. Selank Administration Affects the Expression of Some Genes Involved in GABAergic Neurotransmission. Front Pharmacol. 2016;7:31.
  26. Uchakina ON, Uchakin PN, Miasoedov NF, et al. [Immunomodulatory effects of selank in patients with anxiety-asthenic disorders]. Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2008;108(5):71-5.
  27. Revel M. Host defense against infections and inflammations: role of the multifunctional IL-6/IFN-beta 2 cytokine. Experientia. 1989;45(6):549-57.
  28. Andreeva LA, Nagaev IY, Mezentseva MV, et al. Antiviral properties of structural fragments of the peptide Selank. Dokl Biol Sci. 2010;431:79-82.
  29. Ershov F. I., Uchakin P. N., Uchakina O. N., Mezentseva M. V., Alekseeva L. A., Miasoedov N. F. (2009). Antiviral activity of immunomodulator Selank in experimental influenza infection. Vopr. Virusol. 54, 19–24.
  30. Andreeva LA, Mezentseva MV, Nagaev IY, et al. Ex vivo screening of prospective peptide drugs: new approaches. Dokl Biol Sci. 2010;434:300-3.
  31. Kolomin T, Shadrina M, Andreeva L, Slominsky P, Limborska S, Myasoedov N. Expression of inflammation-related genes in mouse spleen under tuftsin analog Selank. Regulatory peptides. 2011; 170(1-3):18-23.
  32. Kolik LG, Nadorova AV, Kozlovskaya MM. Efficacy of peptide anxiolytic selank during modeling of withdrawal syndrome in rats with stable alcoholic motivation. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2014;157(1):52-5.
  33. Available from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/271745637_The_relationship_between_the_anxiolytic_action_of_selank_and_the_level_of_serotonin_in_brain_structures_during_the_modeling_of_alcohol_abstinence_in_rats.
  34. Fomenko EV, Bobyntsev II, Kryukov AA, Ivanov AV, Andreeva LA, Myasoedov NF. Effect of Selank on Functional State of Rat Hepatocytes under Conditions of Restraint Stress. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2017;163(4):415-418.
  35. Fomenko EV, Bobyntsev II, Ivanov AV, Belykh AE, Andreeva LA, Myasoedov NF. Effect of Selank on Morphological Parameters of Rat Liver in Chronic Foot-Shock Stress. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2019;167(2):293-296.

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