Thymosin Alpha 1
Thymosin alpha 1 (T α 1) is a peptide (consists of two or more amino acids linked in a chain) that is naturally produced by the thymus gland. It plays an integral role in the maturation of immune system cells known as T-cells, which are vital in fighting harmful bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Thymosin alpha 1 also has anti-inflammatory and anti-fatigue properties and is given in patients with hepatitis B and C, malignant melanoma, liver cancer, drug-resistant tuberculosis, Lyme disease and Di George’s syndrome (immunodeficiency disease).
Overall Health Benefits of Thymosin Alpha 1
- Eradicates bacteria, virus, and fungi [1-7]
- Boosts the function of certain immune cells [8-18]
- Suppresses cancer and tumor growth [19-35]
- Accelerates the wound healing process [36-38]
- Fights inflammation [39-48]
- Increases vaccine effectiveness [49-53]
- Improves cognitive function 
Proven Health Benefits of Thymosin Alpha 1
Eradicates Bacteria, Virus, and Fungi
Thymosin alpha 1 possesses strong antimicrobial properties that can help ward off infection:
- In patients with severe sepsis (presence of harmful microorganisms in the blood), thymosin alpha 1 administration improved clinical outcome without any adverse effect. 
- In patients with chronic hepatitis B and C, thymosin alpha 1 administration for 6 months normalized liver enzyme levels, which is suggestive of improved liver function. [2-4]
- In mice with fungal infection, thymosin alpha 1 increased the production of phagocytes, which are cells capable of engulfing and absorbing bacteria. 
- Thymosin alpha 1-based immunomodulatory therapy was associated with a significant reduction in mortality in septic patients. 
- Thymosin alpha 1 administration in septic patients was also associated with increased survival rate, alleviation of illness, and short ICU stay and mechanical ventilation time. 
Boosts the Function of Certain Immune Cells
By affecting the production of certain immune cells, thymosin alpha 1 exerts its immune-boosting properties:
- Thymosin alpha 1 is known to augment T-cell function. [8-9]
- Thymosin alpha 1 also helps regulate both the innate and adaptive immune systems. [10-11]
- Thymosin alpha 1 has the ability to increase CD4+/CD8+ ratio. [12-13]
- By activating and stimulating certain signaling pathways, thymosin alpha 1 boosts the production of immune-related cytokines. 
- By selectively stimulating the release of luteinizing hormone (LH), thymosin alpha 1 indirectly strengthens the immune function. 
- In patients with sepsis, thymosin alpha 1 restored the dysregulated immune response. [16-17]
- A cell study found that thymosin alpha 1 inhibited HIV-1 and human T lymphotropic virus 1 infection by stimulating the release of CD8(+) cells. 
Suppresses Cancer and Tumor Growth
There’s also increasing evidence supporting the anti-cancer and antitumor properties of thymosin alpha 1:
- By regulating cytokine secretion and repairing damaged immune system, thymosin alpha 1 may help reduce cancer incidence. 
- In stage IV human breast cancer model, thymosin alpha 1 treatment was associated with significantly slow tumor growth. 
- In patients with metastatic melanoma and advanced non-small cell lung cancer, thymosin alpha 1 treatment prolonged survival. 
- In patients with hepatitis B virus-associated liver cancer, thymosin alpha 1 therapy improved liver function and significantly prolonged recurrence‑free and overall survival. 
- Thymosin alpha 1 exerts its anti-tumor effects mainly by increasing the secretion of various T cell lymphokines, activating T4 helper cells to promote lymphocyte activity, and increasing the cytotoxicity of natural killer cells. [23-25]
- Administration of thymosin alpha 1 in cancer patients was associated with reduced risk of dying and improved disease‐/progression‐free survival. 
- In patients with metastatic lung cancer, thymosin alpha 1 treatment was associated with complete disappearance of lesions. 
- A cell study found that exposure of human breast cancer cells to thymosin alpha 1 induced apoptosis (programmed cell death). 
- Administration of thymosin alpha 1 in cancer patients increased the anti-tumor effect of chemotherapy while markedly reducing side effects of the treatment. 
- In tumor-bearing mice, thymosin alpha 1 significantly delayed tumor growth and prolonged survival time. 
- When combined with human immunoglobulin, thymosin alpha 1 can produce stronger chemotherapeutic effect against breast cancer cells in mice. 
- When combined with the chemotherapeutic drug dacarbazine, thymosin alpha 1 can improve overall survival of patients with metastatic melanoma (cancer that spreads to other sites). [32-33]
- In human lung cancer cell lines, thymosin alpha 1 administration inhibited cellular proliferation and cell migration through its antioxidant properties. [34-35]
Accelerates the Wound Healing Process
Studies also show that thymosin alpha 1 can accelerate tissue recovery:
- When given either topically or in the form of injections, thymosin alpha 1 accelerated wound healing in mice. 
- A cell-based study found that thymosin alpha 1 accelerates wound healing by promoting formation of new blood vessels and cell migration at the site of injury. 
- In rat kidney cells, thymosin alpha 1 prevented programmed cell death and renal scarring. 
There’s also a good deal of evidence suggesting that thymosin alpha 1 has potent anti-inflammatory properties:
- In rats with acute liver failure, thymosin alpha 1 reduced liver inflammation. 
- Thymosin alpha 1 may help prevent tissue injury by reducing the release of inflammatory factors and cytokines, and the levels of IL-10 to control inflammation. [40-41]
- Thymosin alpha 1 also reduces inflammation by suppressing pro-inflammatory TNF-α. [42-45]
- A cell-based study also found that thymosin alpha 1 protects against inflammatory allergy. 
- A 2019 study published in the Neuroscience Bulletin found that thymosin alpha 1 inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokines in the spinal cord. 
- In a mouse model of cystic fibrosis, a condition characterized by abnormal production of thick mucus, thymosin alpha 1 administration reduced inflammation. 
Increases Vaccine Effectiveness
Thymosin alpha 1 is the ultimate immune system booster. Studies show that this peptide can naturally enhance the effectiveness of certain vaccines:
- In patients who are susceptible to infection, thymosin alpha 1 administration enhanced the immunogenicity (ability to provoke an immune response) of the pandemic influenza vaccine. 
- In elderly patients, administration of thymosin alpha 1 together with influenza vaccine enhanced vaccine responses. [50-51]
- In animal models, thymosin alpha 1 enhanced the efficacy of the classical swine fever vaccine. 
- A study found that thymosin alpha 1 can increase vaccine effectiveness by restoring immune system homeostasis. 
Improves Cognitive Function
A 2017 study published in the Neuroscience bulletin found that administration of thymosin alpha 1 in neonatal mice improved cognitive function. Compared with the control group, thymosin alpha 1-treated mice had better cognitive abilities in early life, increased levels of growth factors, and decreased levels of inflammatory substances. 
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