Thymosin Beta 4

Thymosin is a hormone secreted by the thymus gland. This powerful hormone serves a vital role in the training and development of a special type of white blood cell known as T-lymphocytes or T cells. In addition, thymosin also assists in the development of antibodies necessary for a strong immune system. The predominant form of thymosin known as thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) is an actin, a multi-functional protein that helps muscles and cells move. Thymosin beta 4 also plays a crucial role in tissue regeneration and protection.

Overall Health Benefits of Thymosin Beta 4

  • Boosts Immune System [1-12]
  • Improves Heart Health [13-27]
  • Improves Liver Health [28-34]
  • Accelerates Wound Healing [35-42]
  • Improves Eye Health [43-48]
  • Promotes Nerve Regeneration [49-57]
  • Improves Brain Health [58-63]
  • Improves Lung Health [64]
  • Normalizes Blood Sugar Levels [65-66]
  • Improves Blood Pressure [67]
  • Fights hair loss [68-72]

Boosts Immune System

Thymosin increases the levels of white blood cells and antibodies, thus strengthening the immune system and protecting against a wide array of diseases. Its predominant form thymosin beta 4 has been shown to heighten the immune response through the following important mechanisms:

  1. In human gingival fibroblasts (tissues of the gums), thymosin beta 4 suppresses the section of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 8 (IL8) and protects against programmed cell death (apoptosis) induced by tumor necrosis factor-α. [1]
  2. In human colon, thymosin beta 4 modulates the function of lymphocytes. [2]
  3. In a murine model, thymosin beta 4 potently inhibits white blood cell infiltration and significantly decreases the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. [3]
  4. Thymosin beta 4 facilitates the recognition of a variety of molecular targets, thus making it easier to detect harmful microorganisms. [4]
  5. Thymosin beta 4 is involved in the production of hemocytes, which are cells that play a crucial role in the immune system of invertebrates. [5]
  6. Thymosin beta appears to have antiviral properties. [6]
  7. Thymosin beta 4 enhances the ability of antibodies to bind with antigens (toxins or other foreign substances) to easily destroy foreign invaders and remove them from the body. [7]
  8. Thymosin beta 4 enhances natural killer cells’ cytotoxicity. [8]
  9. Thymosin beta 4 is involve in stabilin-2-mediated engulfment of cells that trigger apoptosis. [9]
  10. In patients with uremia (build-up of waste products in the kidneys), thymosin beta 4 appears to have restorative effect on depressed lymphocyte response. [10]
  11. Phase I and Phase II clinical trials with thymosin in the treatment of primary immunodeficiency diseases, autoimmune diseases, and cancer have shown that this hormone exerts its therapeutic benefits by maintaining immune balance and preventing thymus gland malfunction. [11]
  12. In a cell study, thymosin beta 4 protected against glucocorticoid-induced inflammation by acting as a signal to inhibit an inflammatory response. [12]

Improves Heart Health

The human heart can repair itself at a very slow pace. However, muscle and tissue damage caused by a heart attack cannot be repaired. Interestingly, numerous studies show that thymosin beta 4 could be sufficiently used to improve heart health and regenerate heart damage:

  1. In mammals, thymosin beta 4 administration prevents death of heart muscle cells, stimulates vessel growth, and activates heart stem cells to initiate regeneration. [13]
  2. In patients with acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), transplantation of heart stem cells pre-treated with thymosin beta 4 improves exercise capacity and left ventricular function. [14]
  3. In patients with ischemic heart disease, a condition that affects blood supply to the heart, thymosin beta 4 administration promotes migration and survival of heart muscle cells. [15]
  4. In rats, thymosin beta 4 reduces the levels of harmful free radicals in heart muscle cells. [16]
  5. In mice, thymosin beta 4 treatment improves left ventricular function after myocardial infarction. [17]
  6. In mice, thymosin beta 4 reduces inflammatory cell infiltration and promotes cardiac wound healing. [18]
  7. In pigs, thymosin beta 4 appears to reduce rejection after heart transplantation. [19]
  8. In an animal model of heart injury, thymosin beta 4 appears to reduce inflammatory cell infiltration and promotes cardiac wound healing. [20]
  9. In injured adult heart, thymosin beta 4 facilitates neovascularization (formation of new blood vessels) of the protective layer of the heart known as epicardium. [21]
  10. In cardiac fibroblasts (heart cells), pre-treatment with thymosin beta 4 resulted in reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels induced by hydrogen peroxide, suggesting that the treatment can improve heart health by reducing free radicals. [22]
  11. Thymosin beta 4 improves heart health by increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes and collagen while decreasing the levels of profibrotic genes (involved in scarring). [23]
  12. Thymosin beta 4 also induces mobilization and development of stem cells of the heart for continued renewal of regressed vessels. [24-27]

Improves Liver Health

Because of its potent regenerative properties, thymosin beta 4 has also been studied for its therapeutic effect on various liver disorders. Studies show that thymosin beta 4 exerts this effect through the following mechanisms:

  1. Thymosin beta 4 suppresses the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which are the main matrix-producing cells in the process of liver fibrosis (scarring). [28]
  2. Thymosin beta 4 has anti-inflammatory and anti-scarring properties which help prevent liver scarring and damage. [29-30]
  3. Thymosin beta 4 stimulates liver regeneration through promotion of liver cell migration, blood vessel formation, cell survival, and stem cell maturation. [31]
  4. In patients with chronic hepatitis B combined with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), thymosin beta 4 inhibits oxidative stress and proinflammatory factors. [32]
  5. Thymosin beta 4 inhibits the production of substances that cause liver scarring. [33-34]

Accelerates Wound Healing

Emerging evidence suggests that thymosin beta 4 is involved in a wide range of cellular responses that helps accelerate wound healing:

  1. In both normal and aged rodents, thymosin beta 4 acts by increasing angiogenesis (development of new blood vessels) and cell migration in damaged tissues. [35]
  2. In a rat full thickness wound model, thymosin beta 4 administration increases formation of granulation tissues, collagen deposition, and angiogenesis. [36]
  3. In diabetic mice, thymosin beta 4 improves angiogenesis by activating the VEGF/AKT pathway. [37]
  4. In mice, thymosin beta 4 administration improves wound healing markers such as wound closure, granulation, and vascularization. [38]
  5. Thymosin beta 4 is a key activator of stem cells, which are the main ingredient to wound healing. [39]
  6. Skin application or injection of thymosin beta 4 can increase wound reepithelialization (tissue restoration) by 42%. [40]
  7. In rats with incisional wounds, local treatment with thymosin beta 4 resulted in minimal scaring and without loss in wound breaking strength. [41]
  8. A cell study found that thymosin beta 4 promotes wound healing by modulating inflammatory mediators. [42]

Improves Eye Health

Studies show that thymosin beta 4 may help maintain eye health by protecting against injury and accelerating the eye’s regenerative process:

  1. In cultured human corneal epithelial cells, thymosin beta 4 treatment significantly decreases the levels of proinflammatory substances and accelerates the wound healing process after injury. [43-44]
  2. In diabetic patients, treatment with 2 drops 4 times daily of thymosin beta 4 for 4 weeks appears to heal diabetic corneal defects. [45]
  3. In animals with severe traumatic corneal wound disorders, thymosin beta administration promotes rapid corneal wound healing and decreases infiltration of inflammatory substances. [46]
  4. In patients with moderate to severe dry eye, administration of thymosin beta 4 ophthalmic solution significantly relieves signs and symptoms. [47]
  5. In patients with keratitis (inflammation of the cornea), the addition of thymosin beta 4 to antibiotic treatment promoted enhanced wound healing and inflammation resolution. [48]

Promotes Nerve Regeneration

Thymosin beta 4 is widely distributed in the nervous system, suggesting that it has a role in nerve protection and regeneration. Numerous studies show that thymosin beta 4 is beneficial in several types of nerve injuries:

  1. In mice with brain inflammation, thymosin beta 4 improves functional recovery by reducing inflammatory infiltrates and stimulating oligodendrogenesis (formation of protective covering of nerve cells or neurons). [49]
  2. In rats with spinal cord injury, thymosin beta 4 treatment is associated with a significant decrease in proinflammatory cytokines and spinal lesions. [50]
  3. In animals, thymosin beta 4 plays a crucial role in stem cell maturation and in regeneration and repair of injuries. [51]
  4. In mice with muscular abnormalities, chronic administration of thymosin beta 4 increased the number of regenerating fibers in the skeletal muscle. [52]
  5. A study found that thymosin beta 4 can potentially treat neurological diseases by promoting neurovascular remodeling. [53]
  6. A cell study found that thymosin beta 4 protected stem cells of the spinal cord against oxidative stress-induced damage. [54]
  7. A 2018 study published in Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy found that thymosin beta 4 can treat various neurodegenerative diseases by stimulating the growth of new blood vessels. [55]
  8. In a mouse model of myocardial infarction, injection of thymosin beta 4 in areas of damaged tissues stimulated angiogenesis and migration of stem cells. [56]
  9. A 2019 study published in Neurotoxicity Research found that thymosin beta 4 can help treat neurodegenerative disease by promoting autophagy, a cellular mechanism that removes unnecessary or dysfunctional components. [57]

Improves Brain Health

With thymosin beta 4’s role in tissue regeneration and protection, it seems logical that this powerful protein may also be beneficial in supporting brain health. Numerous studies found that thymosin beta 4 may actually help protect against stroke and other brain injuries:

  1. In mice, thymosin beta 4 stimulates regeneration and formation of new blood vessels. [58]
  2. In rats with ischemic stroke (caused by a blood clot), treatment with thymosin beta 4 significantly improves neurological functional outcome. [59-60]
  3. In a rat model of ischemic stroke, thymosin beta 4 administration improves neurological functional outcome by stimulating oligodendrogenesis. [61]
  4. In patients with stroke and other neurological diseases, thymosin beta 4 treatment appears to remodel or rebuild the nervous system by stimulating self-healing processes in the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. [62]
  5. In animal models of traumatic brain injury (TBI,) early (6 hours post injury) treatment with thymosin beta 4 at doses of 6 and 30 mg/kg reduces brain lesions and cell loss and improves functional recovery. [63]

Improves Lung Health

The anti-scarring properties of thymosin beta 4 may also play a role in maintaining lung health. In mice, thymosin beta 4 administration helps counter bleomycin-induced lung damage by suppressing inflammation and preventing lung scarring. [64]

Normalizes Blood Sugar Levels

Not only does thymosin beta 4 protects against nerve injury caused by diabetes, but it also helps stabilize blood sugar levels. [65] In diabetic mice, thymosin beta 4 ameliorates high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) and improves insulin resistance. [66]

Improves Blood Pressure

The ability of thymosin to train and develop T cells may also have a positive effect on blood pressure not just on immune function. In mammals, studies show that administration of thymosin induces the growth of T cell population and thus reduce the autoimmune state, thereby reducing blood pressure. [67]

Fights Hair Loss

Thymosin beta 4 also has the potential to treat age-related hair loss through its regenerative properties. Studies show that it can positively affect certain mechanisms involved in hair growth:

  1. Thymosin beta 4 accelerates hair growth by stimulating the active phase of the hair follicle cycle, including promoting the migration of stem cells into the hair follicle and remodeling of the hair structure. [68]
  2. Thymosin beta 4 also has the ability to influence the growth of blood vessels around hair follicles. [69]
  3. In various rat and mice models, thymosin beta 4 promotes formation of new blood vessels, hair follicle survival and regeneration. [70]
  4. In mice, higher thymosin beta 4 levels promote hair growth while the loss of it suppresses hair regeneration. [71-72]


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