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XOS

XOS (Xylooligosaccharides)

Xylooligosaccharides are prebiotics, a source of food for your gastrointestinal system’s good bacteria. They are produced from the xylan fraction of plant fibers. A large number of clinical trials suggest that XOS can help improve blood sugar levels and your body’s immune function. You can enjoy the health benefits of XOS by taking it in the form of capsules and tablets.

Overall Health Benefits of XOS (Xylooligosaccharides)

  • Improves Blood Sugar Levels [1-10]
  • Prevents Bone Abnormalities [11-13]
  • Boosts Immune Function [14-19]

How XOS (Xylooligosaccharides) Works

Xylooligosaccharides is naturally found in honey, bamboo shoots, fruits, and vegetables. It exerts its health benefits by stimulating the growth of your gut’s good bacteria, reducing cancer-causing enzymes, enhancing absorption of minerals from the large intestine, and boosting immune function.

Proven Health Benefits of XOS (Xylooligosaccharides)

Improves Blood Sugar Levels

Evidence suggests that XOS has beneficial effects on blood sugar levels:

  1. In patients with type 2 diabetes, dietary supplementation with XOS for 8 weeks was effective in improving blood sugar and lipid levels. [1]
  2. In both healthy and pre-diabetic adults who received 2g/day of XOS for 8 weeks, a reduction in blood sugar levels was observed. [2]
  3. A study showed that consumption of XOS in combination with insulin can protect against diabetes by suppressing inflammation. [3]
  4. In a rat model of diabetes, oral consumption of XOS reduced blood sugar levels. [4]
  5. In broiler chickens, XOS administration also reduced blood sugar levels. [5]
  6. In Albino rats, administration of yogurt enriched with XOS resulted in significant improvement in mineral absorption and lowered blood sugar levels. [6]
  7. In patients with diabetes, XOS supplementation for 8 weeks reduced HbA1c, a test that measures blood sugar levels. [7]
  8. In pre-diabetic adults, supplementation with XOS reversed the changes in the gut microbiota that are associated with the development of diabetes. [8]
  9. A study showed consuming XOS alone or in combination with insulin resulted in beneficial changes in the intestinal environment, an effect that can help lower blood sugar levels. [9]
  10. In obese insulin-resistant rats, supplementation with XOS reduced blood sugar levels by protecting against oxidative stress and apoptosis (programmed cell death). [10]

Prevents Bone Abnormalities

A convincing number of evidence also found that XOS can help strengthen the skeletal frame:

  1. In male Wistar rats, XOS improved jawbone microarchitecture. [11]
  2. A study showed that XOS increases bone strength during periods of growth. [12]
  3. A study also reported that XOS prevents bone abnormalities and fracture by increasing calcium transport within the bones. [13]

Boosts Immune Function

Studies show that XOS can help strengthen the immune system by protecting various organs in the body:

  1. In mice with chronic kidney disease (CKD), XOS supplementation for 3 weeks significantly reversed kidney injury by decreasing the levels of the toxin p-cresol sulfate. [14]
  2. A study showed that XOS exert can help protect against several ailments by increasing immune system cells. [15]
  3. A study showed that supplementation with XOS can ameliorate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by protecting against oxidative stress. [16]
  4. Studies also found that XOS lowers the risk of colon cancer by suppressing the production of cancer-causing enzymes and preventing intestinal inflammation. [17-19]

References:

  1. Sheu WH, Lee IT, Chen W, Chan YC. Effects of xylooligosaccharides in type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2008 Oct;54(5):396-401. doi: 10.3177/jnsv.54.396. PMID: 19001772.
  2. Yang J, Summanen PH, Henning SM, et al. Xylooligosaccharide supplementation alters gut bacteria in both healthy and prediabetic adults: a pilot study. Front Physiol. 2015;6:216. Published 2015 Aug 7. doi:10.3389/fphys.2015.00216.
  3. Lecerf, J., Dépeint, F., Clerc, E., Dugenet, Y., Niamba, C., Rhazi, L., . . . Pouillart, P. (2012). Xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS) in combination with inulin modulates both the intestinal environment and immune status in healthy subjects, while XOS alone only shows prebiotic properties. British Journal of Nutrition, 108(10), 1847-1858. doi:10.1017/S0007114511007252.
  4. Khat‐udomkiri, N, Toejing, P, Sirilun, S, Chaiyasut, C, Lailerd, N. Antihyperglycemic effect of rice husk derived xylooligosaccharides in high‐fat diet and low‐dose streptozotocin‐induced type 2 diabetic rat model. Food Sci Nutr. 2020; 8: 428– 444. https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.1327.
  5. Available from https://aem.asm.org/content/81/17/5880.
  6. Semee Mumtaz, Salim-ur- Rehman, Nuzhat Huma and Amer Jamil, 2009. Effect of Xylooligosaccharide Enriched Yogurt on Serum Profile in Albino Rats. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 8: 1756-1759.
  7. Sheu WH, Lee IT, Chen W, Chan YC. Effects of xylooligosaccharides in type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2008 Oct;54(5):396-401. doi: 10.3177/jnsv.54.396. PMID: 19001772.
  8. Yang J, Summanen PH, Henning SM, et al. Xylooligosaccharide supplementation alters gut bacteria in both healthy and prediabetic adults: a pilot study. Front Physiol. 2015;6:216. Published 2015 Aug 7. doi:10.3389/fphys.2015.00216.
  9. Lecerf, J., Dépeint, F., Clerc, E., Dugenet, Y., Niamba, C., Rhazi, L., . . . Pouillart, P. (2012). Xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS) in combination with inulin modulates both the intestinal environment and immune status in healthy subjects, while XOS alone only shows prebiotic properties. British Journal of Nutrition, 108(10), 1847-1858. doi:10.1017/S0007114511007252.
  10. Wanchai, K., Yasom, S., Tunapong, W., Chunchai, T., Thiennimitr, P., Chaiyasut, C., Pongchaidecha, A., Chatsudthipong, V., Chattipakorn, S., Chattipakorn, N., & Lungkaphin, A. (2018). Prebiotic prevents impaired kidney and renal Oat3 functions in obese rats, Journal of Endocrinology, 237(1), 29-42. Retrieved Dec 12, 2020, from https://joe.bioscientifica.com/view/journals/joe/237/1/JOE-17-0471.xml.
  11. Hsu, Cheng-Kuang, et al. “Xylooligosaccharides and Fructooligosaccharides Affect the Intestinal Microbiota and Precancerous Colonic Lesion Development in Rats.” The Journal of Nutrition,  134, no. 6, 2004, pp. 1523-8.
  12. Whisner CM, Castillo LF. Prebiotics, Bone and Mineral Metabolism. Calcif Tissue Int. 2018;102(4):443-479. doi:10.1007/s00223-017-0339-3.
  13. Available from https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/12/11/3542/htm.
  14. Lin SH, Chou LM, Chien YW, Chang JS, Lin CI. Prebiotic Effects of Xylooligosaccharides on the Improvement of Microbiota Balance in Human Subjects. Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2016;2016:5789232. doi:10.1155/2016/5789232.
  15. Jain, Ira & Kumar, Vikash & Satyanarayana, T.. (2015). Xylooligosaccharides: An economical prebiotic from agroresidues and their health benefits. Indian journal of experimental biology. 53. 131-42.
  16. Available from https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/12/11/3225#cite.
  17. Hsu CK, Liao JW, Chung YC, Hsieh CP, Chan YC. Xylooligosaccharides and fructooligosaccharides affect the intestinal microbiota and precancerous colonic lesion development in rats. J Nutr. 2004 Jun;134(6):1523-8. doi: 10.1093/jn/134.6.1523. PMID: 15173423.
  18. Lin SH, Chou LM, Chien YW, Chang JS, Lin CI. Prebiotic Effects of Xylooligosaccharides on the Improvement of Microbiota Balance in Human Subjects. Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2016;2016:5789232. doi:10.1155/2016/5789232.
  19. Fei Y, Wang Y, Pang Y, et al. Xylooligosaccharide Modulates Gut Microbiota and Alleviates Colonic Inflammation Caused by High Fat Diet Induced Obesity. Front Physiol. 2020;10:1601. Published 2020 Jan 22. doi:10.3389/fphys.2019.01601.

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