Testosterone for Men

Testosterone is the main male sex hormone. During puberty, it is responsible for the development of secondary sexual characteristics, including deepening of the voice; growth of the penis, testes, muscles and body hair; getting taller; and sperm production. Testosterone also plays a role in fat distribution, red blood cell production, and maintaining bone density.
Testosterone is created primarily in the testicles, under the influence of the pituitary gland. Testosterone levels surge during puberty and remain elevated through a man’s 20s and into his 30s. Beginning in the mid-30s, many men begin to experience a gradual reduction in testosterone production, as much as 1-2% every year. The result of this slow-moving testosterone deficiency—called andropause—can be a constellation of symptoms, including loss of energy, weight gain, reduced sex drive, increased risk for diseases, balding, and many others.
Despite this, too many men remain unaware that their “normal” symptoms of aging might in fact be due to a deficiency in testosterone. Overall, up to 40% of men aged 45 years and above might have low testosterone levels, but only a fraction of these seek out treatment. The doctors at Genemedics Health Institute are here to help. We are one of the nation’s leading clinics for male andropause, testosterone therapy, and anti-aging programs for men. If you suspect you are suffering from low testosterone levels, our doctors can help—we have worked with thousands of men to relieve symptoms associated with testosterone deficiency.

What Causes Low Testosterone?

Men's Hormones TestosteroneThere are three known causes of low testosterone:

1. Age-related decline, also known as andropause.
2. Primary hypogonadism, caused by abnormalities at birth (congenital abnormalities) or chronic diseases, environmental toxins, certain drugs, radiation, trauma, autoimmune damage, and testicular torsion.
3. Secondary hypogonadism, caused by problems with the pituitary gland or hypothalamus, usually due to birth defects or conditions such as liver disorders, diabetes, inflammatory disease, autoimmune disorders, opiates, high prolactin levels, glucocorticoid treatment, steroid administration, and stress.

Testosterone Deficiency in Men

Testosterone deficiency can occur at any point in a male’s life, depending on its cause. During puberty, males with low testosterone can have the following signs and symptoms:

  • Breast enlargement (gynecomastia)
  • Decreased muscle mass and strength
  • Excessive growth of the arms and legs in relation to the trunk
  • Impaired growth of facial, body and pubic hair
  • Impaired growth of the penis and testicles
  • Lack of deepening of the voice

In adult men, testosterone deficiency can cause:

  • Breast enlargement (gynecomastia)
  • Decrease in beard and body hair
  • Decrease in muscle mass and strength
  • Decreased sexual desire and function
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Fatigue
  • Hot flashes
  • Increased body fat
  • Infertility
  • Irritability
  • Loss of bone mass and density (osteoporosis)
  • Mood changes

Testosterone and Bone Health

Low testosterone can be a significant marker for osteoporosis and other bone diseases. Testosterone helps maintain strong bones and stimulates bone formation. Several studies involving testosterone deficient men yield similar results—that lower levels of testosterone are associated with decreased bone density and increase a man’s risk for osteoporosis and other bone disorders. Many observational studies have found an association between testosterone use in men and significant gains in bone density, favorable changes in bone turnover (total volume of bone that is both resorbed and formed over a period of time), and lower risk of osteoporotic fractures.

Testosterone and Cardiovascular Disease

Low testosterone can be a significant marker for osteoporosis and other bone diseases. Testosterone helps maintain strong bones and stimulates bone formation. Several studies involving testosterone deficient men yield similar results—that lower levels of testosterone are associated with decreased bone density and increase a man’s risk for osteoporosis and other bone disorders. Many observational studies have found an association between testosterone use in men and significant gains in bone density, favorable changes in bone turnover (total volume of bone that is both resorbed and formed over a period of time), and lower risk of osteoporotic fractures.

Low testosterone is common in patients with cardiovascular diseases and has been associated with poorer clinical outcomes. In the largest study to date, involving 11,606 healthy men aged 40 to 79 years old, the researchers reported that low levels of testosterone increased the risk of cardiovascular disease after a 6- to 10-year follow up period.Even more relevant, researchers reported a mortality rate of 21% among 930 men with coronary disease and testosterone deficiency versus only 12% in the group with healthy levels of testosterone.

Testosterone promotes the accumulation of plaques of fatty material on the inner walls of the arteries, a condition known as atherosclerosis. Testosterone administration may be beneficial in cardiovascular diseases thanks to these factors:

  1. Testosterone has vasodilatory effect. In one study, short-term intracoronary administration of the hormone among 13 men with coronary artery disease induced dilatation of the coronary artery and increased blood flow to the heart.
  2. Testosterone inhibits fatty streak formation, which is the first step in the development of atherosclerosis.
  3. Testosterone administration improves high density lipoprotein (HDL), also known as the “good cholesterol” because it helps remove excess cholesterol from the blood.

Testosterone and High Blood Sugar Levels

Low levels of testosterone in men are associated with insulin resistance or reduced insulin sensitivity. Insulin resistance is a condition wherein the body produces insulin but does not use it properly. As a result, blood sugar accumulates in the bloodstream instead of going inside the cells to be used as energy. Over time, insulin resistance can lead to type 2 diabetes and increases your risk for other health problems.
In one study, testosterone replacement therapy has been shown to reduce high blood sugar by reducing insulin resistance in 24 hypogonadal men (those with low testosterone levels) aged 30 and over with type 2 diabetes. In a similar study, researchers reported that oral testosterone treatment of type 2 diabetic men with androgen deficiency improved blood sugar levels, decreased visceral obesity, and improved symptoms of androgen deficiency including erectile dysfunction.

Testosterone and Muscle Building

Testosterone—whether taken orally, applied via patch or cream, or injected—allows men to rapidly increase their muscle mass beyond the normal range with reduced recovery time. Testosterone increases the presence of chemical messengers at the damaged muscle fiber site, which activates tissue growth and stimulates muscle repair. Testosterone also affects muscle mass by increasing muscle protein synthesis, which influences how muscles respond to exercise.

Testosterone and Sexual Health

Testosterone is the fuel for male sex drive and performance. In one large study, researchers have found a strong link between low testosterone levels and low sexual desire. In all of the respondents, 28% of men with low testosterone levels exhibited low sexual desire and function. Testosterone administration may be beneficial in men with sexual dysfunction thanks to its effect on nitric oxide, which is crucial for developing and maintaining erections. One long-term study involving 18 testosterone-deficient men who received testosterone replacement therapy for a period of 3 years showed improvements in prostate volume, energy, and sexual function.

What Causes Low Testosterone?

  • As testosterone declines, so does cognitive function. Several studies have shown a significant association between low testosterone levels in men and a decline in memory, attention, and language. Testosterone replacement therapy in men has shown improvement in different cognitive abilities. Possible mechanisms to explain how testosterone improves cognitive function include:
    1. Testosterone has neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress and programmed cell death in the brain.
    2. Testosterone inhibits the secretion of β-amyloid (sticky plaques) and hyperphosphorylated tau (disassembles normal cell structure), both of which contribute to the development of Alzheimer’s disease.
    3. Testosterone increases brain activation and has a male-specific role in enhancing memory by increasing the biological salience of incoming information.

Testosterone and Mood

Mood swings in men are a primary symptom of low testosterone. Changes in mood such as irritability, lack of energy and motivation, bouts of depression, and a decrease in well-being are common among hypogonadal men. Testosterone directly affects serotonin levels in the brain. Serotonin is one of the brain chemicals responsible for regulating mood. As men get older, their ability to absorb serotonin decreases. This explains why low testosterone in older men seems to put them at particular risk for mood changes.
Multiple studies using testosterone therapy have shown that it favorably affects mood. In a meta-analysis of data from seven studies, testosterone therapy in hypogonadal men showed a significant positive effect on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) when compared to placebo. In another study, testosterone replacement therapy in hypogonadal men with symptoms of depression who not responded to anti-depressants showed improvements in depressive symptoms and overall mood.

Testosterone and Immune Function

Testosterone plays a major role in the immune system by increasing the number of circulating immune cells. It accomplishes this by affecting the reproduction, maturation, and ultimately the functioning of immune cells and molecules, especially cytokines.

Your Solution: Natural Testosterone Replacement Therapy

Undergoing natural testosterone replacement therapy can help reverse all of the symptoms of low testosterone in men. Natural testosterone replacement therapy doesn’t only improve your overall health, it also prevents chronic disease and illness. After the decision to restore testosterone levels has been made, our highly qualified and experienced doctors will help you decide on the most effective means of testosterone delivery.

Testosterone treatment can be administered through intramuscular injections, creams, patches, pills, or through pellets inserted under the skin.