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Graviola Leaf Powder

Graviola Leaf Powder (Annona muricata)

Graviola, also known as “soursoup”, is the fruit of a small evergreen tree called “Annona muricata”. This amazing fruit is native to tropical areas of Central and South America and is used as a natural remedy for a wide array of medical maladies such as bacterial and parasitic infections, cancer, diabetes, and various painful conditions. Graviola is a goldmine of nutrients such as protein, calories, carbohydrates, fiber, vitamin C, thiamine, magnesium, and potassium. Aside from the fruit, the seeds, leaves, root, and stem of Annona muricata can also be used to make medicines. In most cases, graviola leaf is taken in the form of tea or powder as a treatment for various infections because it’s highly rich in antioxidants, which are essential in the reduction of inflammation and harmful free radicals.

Overall Health Benefits of Graviola Leaf Powder (Annona muricata)

  • Improves symptoms of diabetes [1-9]
  • Lowers blood pressure [10-13]
  • Boosts sexual vitality and improves sexual health [14-15]
  • Speeds up wound healing and regeneration [16-19]
  • Protects against liver and kidney disease [20]
  • Combats cancer [21-38]

How Graviola Leaf Powder (Annona muricata) Works

Graviola is a potent antioxidant, which means that it can help protect the body against harmful free radicals. It contains several compounds with antioxidant abilities such as tannins, saponins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, and phytosterols.

Proven Health Benefits of Graviola Leaf Powder (Annona muricata)

Improves Symptoms of Diabetes

Several lines of clinical evidence suggest that graviola has beneficial effects on people diagnosed with diabetes mellitus and those with chronic elevations in blood sugar levels:

  1. A study found that the hypoglycemic and antioxidative properties of graviola improved blood sugar levels in diabetic animals. [1]
  2. A study showed that graviola can be beneficial in the treatment and management of hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels) and other symptoms of diabetes. [2]
  3. A study found that graviola improved symptoms in diabetic patients with minimal to no adverse side effects. [3]
  4. A study reported that graviola leaf extracts can help reduce blood sugar levels without any untoward signs and symptoms. [4]
  5. A review of several studies found that graviola leaf extract can safely and effectively reduce blood sugar levels in diabetics. [5]
  6. In streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, graviola leaf extract supplementation at a dose of 100mg/kg significantly reduced blood sugar levels. [6]
  7. In an animal experiment, researchers found that graviola leaves contain flavonoids and phenolic compound alkaloids that are necessary for the increased production of pancreatic beta cells (secrete insulin to reduce blood sugar levels). [7-8]
  8. In Wistar rats, graviola leaf extract decreased blood sugar levels by inhibiting carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes such as α-amylase and α-glucosidase. [9]

Lowers Blood Pressure

Studies also show that supplementation with graviola leaf can help achieve a healthy blood pressure:

  1. In Sprague-Dawley rats, graviola leaf exerted hypotensive effects (blood pressure-lowering effects). [10]
  2. In rats, pretreatment with graviola leaf extract at 250 mg/kg normalized blood pressure by reducing the markers of oxidative stress and improving the antioxidant defense system [11]
  3. A study found that graviola can lower blood pressure by decreasing uric acid levels. [12]
  4. A study found that graviola reduced blood pressure and other metabolic parameters in patients with diabetes mellitus. [13]

Boosts Sexual Vitality and Improves Sexual Health

Evidence suggests that graviola leaf has beneficial effects on libido:

  1. In diabetic animals, researchers found that both the hypoglycemic and antioxidative potential of graviola are possible mechanisms responsible for the reduction of genes and substances that stimulate death of testicular cells and testicular inflammation. [14]
  2. In albino rats, graviola mitigated the caffeine-induced toxicity on weight of testes and epididymes, sperm motility, and sperm count. [15]

Speeds Up Wound Healing and Regeneration

Numerous studies suggest that graviola has strong regenerative properties necessary for wound healing and tissue regeneration:

  1. In guinea pigs with heart injury associated with low oxygen supply, graviola leaf improved the contractility of the myocardium (heart muscle). [16]
  2. A study found that graviola leaf exhibited antiulcer potential via suppression of oxidative damage and preservation of the gastric wall mucus. [17]
  3. A study also found that graviola leaf extract can speed up the wound healing process via inhibition of the production of inflammatory substances. [18]
  4. A study showed that graviola leaf extract has an analgesic effect. [19]

Protects against Liver and Kidney Disease

Evidence also suggests that graviola can help protect against liver and kidney disease:

  1. A study found that low doses of graviola leaf extract protected the liver and kidneys of mice against bacterial infections by suppressing inflammation. [20]

Combats Cancer

There’s a great deal of evidence supporting the potent anti-cancer properties of graviola leaf:

  1. A study reported that the acetogenins from the leaf extracts of graviola have the ability to induce death of tumor cells. [21]
  2. A study showed that graviola leaf extract can promote selective cancer cell death via inhibition of NKA and SERCA. [22]
  3. In human pancreatic cancer cells, graviola exhibited anti-cancer properties by inhibiting cellular metabolism. [23]
  4. A study reported that graviola leaf extract is effective at killing various types of cancer. [24]
  5. In skin cancer cells, graviola showed significant cytotoxic activity against malignant cells and higher percentage of cell growth inhibition. [25]
  6. A study showed that the anti-inflammatory activities of graviola can help inhibit the progression of cancer. [26]
  7. In mouse breast cancer cells, graviola reduced tumor size and weight via induction of programmed cell death (apoptosis). [27-28]
  8. In colon cancer cells, graviola induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. [29]
  9. In human leukemia cell line, graviola inhibited cancer cell growth. [30]
  10. In prostate cancer cell lines, graviola inhibited tumor mobility and cellular metabolism. [31-33]
  11. In Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) tumor cell lines, graviola inhibited the normal growth of the lung tumors by depleting their energy source and by inducing cell cycle arrest. [34-37]
  12. In female albino mice, graviola leaf extract prevented the development of breast cancer. [38]

References:

  1. Alsenosy AA, El-Far AH, Sadek KM, et al. Graviola (Annona muricata) attenuates behavioural alterations and testicular oxidative stress induced by streptozotocin in diabetic rats. PLoS One. 2019;14(9):e0222410. Published 2019 Sep 11. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0222410.
  2. Agu, K.C., Eluehike, N., Ofeimun, R.O. et al. Possible anti-diabetic potentials of Annona muricata (soursop): inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. Clin Phytosci 5, 21 (2019).
  3. Agu, K.C., Eluehike, N., Ofeimun, R.O. et al. Possible anti-diabetic potentials of Annona muricata (soursop): inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. Clin Phytosci 5, 21 (2019).
  4. Available from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1995764517306302#sec8.
  5. Available from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jphp.13182.
  6. Florence NT, Benoit MZ, Jonas K, et al. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of Annona muricata (Annonaceae), aqueous extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;151(2):784-790. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2013.09.021.
  7. Damayanti DS, Utomo DH, Kusuma C. Revealing the potency of Annona muricata leaves extract as FOXO1 inhibitor for diabetes mellitus treatment through computational study. In Silico Pharmacol. 2016;5(1):3. doi:10.1007/s40203-017-0023-3.
  8. Available from http://www.bioline.org.br/pdf?md06030.
  9. Available from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s40816-019-0116-0.
  10. Nwokocha CR, Owu DU, Gordon A, et al. Possible mechanisms of action of the hypotensive effect of Annona muricata (soursop) in normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats. Pharm Biol. 2012;50(11):1436-1441. doi:10.3109/13880209.2012.684690.
  11. Ola-Davies, O., Oyagbemi, A., Omobowale, T., Akande, I., & Ashafa, A. (2019). Ameliorative effects of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) against potassium dichromate-induced hypertension in vivo: involvement of Kim-1/p38 MAPK/Nrf2 signaling, Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology, 30(4), 20180172.
  12. Available from http://www.florajournal.com/archives/2018/vol6issue2/PartB/7-1-4-328.pdf.
  13. Alwan I. A, Lim V, Samad N. A, Widyawati T, Yusoff N. A. Effect of Annona Muricata L. on Metabolic Parameters in Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review. Curr Res Nutr Food Sci 2019; 8(1).
  14. Available from https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0222410#abstract0.
  15. B. Ekaluo, E.V. Ikpeme, Y.B. Ibiang and F.O. Omordia, 2013. Effect of Soursop (Annona muricata L.) Fruit Extract on Sperm Toxicity Induced by Caffeine in Albino Rats. Journal of Medical Sciences, 13: 67-71.
  16. Robbert Bipat, Jerry R. Toelsie, Indira Magali, Rubaina Soekhoe, Karin Stender, Angelique Wangsawirana, Krishan Oedairadjsingh, Jennifer Pawirodihardjo & Dennis R. A. Mans (2016) Beneficial effect of medicinal plants on the contractility of post-hypoxic isolated guinea pig atria – Potential implications for the treatment of ischemic–reperfusion injury, Pharmaceutical Biology, 54:8, 1483-1489, DOI: 10.3109/13880209.2015.1107103.
  17. Zorofchian, Soheil & Rouhollahi, Elham & Karimian, Hamed & Fadaeinasab, Mehran & Abdulla, Mahmood & Kadir, Habsah. (2014). Gastroprotective activity of Annona muricata leaves against ethanol-induced gastric injury in rats via Hsp70/Bax involvement. Drug design, development and therapy. 8. 2099-111. 10.2147/DDDT.S70096.
  18. Oyekachukwu AR, Elijah JP, Eshu OV, Nwodo OFC (2017) Anti-Inflammatory Effects of The Chloroform Extract of Annona muricata Leaves on Phospholipase A2 and Prostaglandin Synthase Activities. Transl Biomed. Vol.8 No.4:137. doi:10.21767/2172-0479.100137.
  19. Ishola IO, Awodele O, Olusayero AM, Ochieng CO. Mechanisms of analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) fruit extract in rodents. J Med Food. 2014;17(12):1375-1382. doi:10.1089/jmf.2013.0088.
  20. Borjac, Jamilah. (2017). Histopathological Effects of the Annona muricata Aqueous Leaves Extract on the Liver and Kidneys of Albino Mice. Translational medicine. 7. 194. 10.4172/2161-1025.1000194.
  21. Qazi AK, Siddiqui JA, Jahan R, et al. Emerging therapeutic potential of graviola and its constituents in cancers. Carcinogenesis. 2018;39(4):522-533. doi:10.1093/carcin/bgy024
  22. Yiallouris, A., Patrikios, I., Johnson, E. et al. Annonacin promotes selective cancer cell death via NKA-dependent and SERCA-dependent pathways. Cell Death Dis 9, 764 (2018).
  23. Torres MP, Rachagani S, Purohit V, et al. Graviola: a novel promising natural-derived drug that inhibits tumorigenicity and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo through altering cell metabolism. Cancer Lett. 2012;323(1):29-40. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2012.03.031.
  24. Patrikios Ioannis, Stephanou Anastasis, Yiallouris Andreas. Graviola: A Systematic Review on Its Anticancer Properties. American Journal of Cancer Prevention. Vol. 3, No. 6, 2015, pp 128-131.
  25. Magadi VP, Ravi V, Arpitha A, Litha, Kumaraswamy K, Manjunath K. Evaluation of cytotoxicity of aqueous extract of Graviola leaves on squamous cell carcinoma cell-25 cell lines by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-Yl) -2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and determination of percentage of cell inhibition at G2M phase of cell cycle by flow cytometry: An in vitro study. Contemp Clin Dent 2015;6:529-33.
  26. Abdul Wahab SM, Jantan I, Haque MA, Arshad L. Exploring the Leaves of Annona muricata L. as a Source of Potential Anti-inflammatory and Anticancer Agents. Front Pharmacol. 2018;9:661. Published 2018 Jun 20. doi:10.3389/fphar.2018.00661.
  27. Syed Najmuddin, S.U.F., Romli, M.F., Hamid, M. et al. Anti-cancer effect of Annona Muricata Linn Leaves Crude Extract (AMCE) on breast cancer cell line. BMC Complement Altern Med 16, 311 (2016).
  28. Yu-Min Koa, Tung-Ying Wub, Yang-Chang Wub, Fang-RongChangb, Jinn-YuhGuhc,d,∗, Lea-Yea Chuange,∗Annonacin induces cell cycle-dependent growth arrest and apoptosis in estrogen receptor-_-related pathways in MCF-7 cells. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 137 (2011) 1283-1290.
  29. Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Hamed Karimian, Elham Rouhollahi, Mohammadjavad Paydar, Mehran Fadaeinasab, Habsah Abdul Kadir. Annona muricataleavesinduceG1 cell cyclearrest and apoptosis through mitochondria-mediated pathwayinhumanHCT-116 and HT-29 colon cancercells Journal of Ethnopharmacology 156 (2014) 277-289.
  30. Constant Anatole Pieme, Santosh Guru Kumar, Mireille SylvianeDongmo, Bruno Moukette Moukette1, Fabrice Fekam Boyoum4, Jeanne YonkeuNgogang and Ajit Kumar Saxena. Antiproliferative activity and induction of apoptosis by Annona muricata (Annonaceae) bextract on human cancer cells. Pieme et al. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014, 14:516.
  31. Torres, M. P.; Rachagani, S.; Purohit, V.; Pandey, P.; Joshi, S.; Moore, E. D.; Johansson, S. L.; Singh, P. K.; Ganti, A. K.; Batra, S. K.Graviola: a novel promising natural-derived drug that inhibits tumorigenicity and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo through altering cell metabolism. Cancer Lett. 2012, 323, 29.
  32. Yang C1, Gundala SR1, Mukkavilli R2, Vangala S3, Reid MD4, Aneja R5.Synergistic interactions among flavonoids and acetogenins in Graviola (Annona muricata) leaves confer protection against prostate cancer.Carcinogenesis. 2015 Jun;36(6):656-65. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgv046. Epub 2015 Apr 11.
  33. Jeno Paul, R. Gnanam, R. M. Jayadeepa and L. Arul. Anti-Cancer Activity on Graviola, Exciting Medicinal Plant Extract vs Various Cancer Cell Lines and a Detailed Computational Study on its Potent Anti-Cancerous Leads. Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry 2013. V.13:1666-1673:8.
  34. Alali FQ1, Liu XX, McLaughlin JL. “Annonaceous acetogenins: Recent progress.” J. Nat. Prod. 1999; 62(3): 504-540.
  35. Morre DJ, de Cabo R, Farley C, Oberlies NH, McLaughlin JL. “Mode of action of bullatacin, a potent antitumor acetogenin: inhibition of NADH oxidase activity of HeLa and HL-60, but not liver, plasma membranes.” Life Sci. 1995; 56(5): 343-8.
  36. Nicholas H. Oberlies, Ching-jer Chang, and Jerry L. McLaughlin. “Structure-activity relationships of diverse annonaceousacetogenins against multidrug resistant human mammary adenocarcinoma (MCF-7/Adr) cells.” J. Med. Chem. 1997; 40(13): 2101-2106.
  37. González-Coloma A1, Guadaño A, de Inés C, Martínez-Díaz R, Cortes D. “Selective action of acetogenin mitochondrial complex I inhibitors.” Z. Naturforsch2002; 57(11-12): 1028-34.
  38. B. Minari *, U. Okeke. Chemopreventive effect of Annona muricata on DMBA-induced cell proliferation in the breast tissues of female albino mice. The Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics (2014) 15, 327–334.
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